The high prevalence of myopia is currently acquiring special medical and social significance, in connection with which the health and quality of life of children and people of working age throughout the world are at risk. In this regard, WHO and the coalition of correctional organizations have declared the fight against myopia as a priority for the implementation of the Vision 2020 program, the right to see, global initiatives. Childhood blindness from refractive disorders, which includes myopia and is considered blindness that can be prevented, therefore, prevention of myopia among children remains one of the pressing problems of pediatric ophthalmology and health care organization
Approximately 253 million people around the world suffer from visual impairments, including 36 million blind and 246 million with low stage of vision. 90% of visually impaired people live in developing countries. Percentage of common eye diseases in Kazakhstan is in the first place and in various regions increases from 13.4% to 18%. The main cause of decrease in vision is myopia (mean 63.7%).
Purpose of the work: Currently, comprehensive medical and social research of myopia morbidity among schoolchildren in Kokshetau city, Kazakhstan
Tasks and methods of research: Result of polls among pupils in Kokshetau and retrospective system analysis based on normative-legal documents.
Object of research: 150 secondary and middle-aged children with mental disorders of 10 general education schools in Kokshetau
Used research methods: statistical and social approaches
On the general basis, the levels of myopia morbidity, middle and severe myopia were determined during the research period. That is, out of 374 children of the outpatient and polyclinic organization in the form of research 55% are light type, 31% is medium and 14% is heavy. Among them there are many types of illness, which are acutely severe, the first to be recorded and prevented in the past. International Classification of Diseases: H52.1, H52.2, H52.5 and H52.
The combination of genetic and environmental factors plays an important role in the formation of myopia. The three-factor theory of myopia is known: Nearby vision - low battery charging; Heredity; Vascular sclera is the pressure inside the eye.
On the whole, 150 questionnaires were examined and 130 were analyzed for medical and social analysis. During the questionnaire the social and hygienic character of the patient with myopia was developed. That is, in the average analysis, it is between the ages of 13 and 14, girls are the main priority, 47% are identified in the first grade of school, 57% of family members are closely acquainted with a straightforward parent or grandparents, wearing glasses, studying at a modern-day instructional school, gymnasium and lyceum, 50/50%
- After analyzing the sources of external and internal literature, myopia is a disease of the modern world, its prevalence is increasing every year, and children and adolescents are more likely to be diagnosed with this diagnosis.
- The development of myopia is especially noticeable among pupils of Kokshetau. Between 2015 and 2017, myopic disorders have a 1.5-fold increase in pupils
- Among those who had been diagnosed with myopia, it was found that 70% of the disease was related to the school age
Schiller, Sofia Isaakovna Medical and social aspects of the prevention of myopia among schoolchildren enrolled in innovative programs, dissertation
World health organization, Vision impairment and blindnessFact Sheet ,Updated October 2017