Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat from infected animals, or close contact with their secretions. They function as facultative intracellular parasites, causing chronic disease, which usually persists for life. It is not uncommon for a person to have recurrence of symptoms, and sometimes this evolves into chronic brucellosis, which may be progressive if untreated. The disease is long, accompanied by the chronic of the infectious process with the often subsequent disability of the able-bodied population.
The purpose of this study: Study of the epidemiological situation and measures to improve the epidemiological surveillance of brucellosis in South Kazakhstan.
Results and discussion: The incidence of diagnosed brucellosis in the South Kazakhstan region has declined in recent years from 13,3 in 2015to 9.96 in 2016y.Entirely, the incidence of brucellosis in the South Kazakhstan region is reduced by 27%, in 2015, 382 cases were registered in the region, the incidence rate was 13.64 per 100 thousand people, whereas in 2016 279 cases of brucellosis were registered, the indicator was 9 , 96 per 100 thousand of population. Among children under 14 years old, acute brucellosis was diagnosed for the first time in 2015 in 42 children (in 2015, 58 cases). The decrease in the number of children with brucellosis affected by comparison with 2015 is 27.6%. Increase in causes are observed in Turkestan -44, Baidibek -27, and Kazygurt 35 districts(the incidence rate per 100 thousand population is 17.7, 51.9 and 33.0, respectively).
The disease keeps its seasonality, cases of brucellosis are registered mainly from April to November. A significant decrease was noted in the Arys, Makhtaaral, Tyulkubas, Tolebi, Sayram, Suzak districts, Turkestan and Shymkent cities, but at the same time, the incidence rate in Kazygurt (the incidence rate per 100,000 population is 51.7), in Otyrar (incidence rate per 100 thousand population - 40.5), Ordabasy districts (incidence rate per 100 thousand population - 33), Group cases of diseases among people are not registered.
In the centers of brucellosis the source is established in 87.1% of cases. The disease is associated with farm animals of the private sector. The source of infection was detected in 370 (87.1%) patients. Out of the total number of established sources, 206 people became ill from small cattle, 73 from enormouscattle.
1194 areas of infection were registered, anti-epidemiological, veterinary measures were carried out, laboratory tests of 585 samples: 220 samples of milk, meat and dairy products, 14 (6.3%) did not meet hygienic standards, out of 86 wool samples positive 4 (4.6%) samples, among 500 clay samples, 86 (17.2%) samples were positive for brucellosis. 2033 contact persons were examined by laboratory methods, positive tests for brucellosis were detected in 15 persons (0.7%). Brucellamelitensis is excreted in the blood culture of patients.
For decline this incidence have conducted 134 seminars, 353 lectures, 29 articles in the media, 142 sanitary bulletins, 4,217 information sheets, 55 radio broadcasts, 42 television appearances, 3,235 conversations, and 1 round table, between humans and farm animals in this region.
Conclusion:In order to improve epidemiological control, standard definitions of cases of acute and chronic brucellosis (order No. 623 of December 15, 2006) have been introduced in the Republic of Kazakhstan, laboratory diagnostic methods (ELISA, PCR) have been widely introduced, training trainings for CDC / CAR of the Central Asian region have been conducted epidemiological investigations when registering cases of newly diagnosed brucellosis.