Zoonotic infection in south Kazakhstan

The following zoonotic infections of protozoan (leishmaniosis), viral (Congo-Crimea hemorrhagic fever, rabies), bacterial (brucellosis, anthrax) etiology are registered on the territory of SKR.

The aim of the work is to analyze the frequent zoonotic infections of bacterial, protozoal and viral etiology in the South Kazakhstan region (South Kazakhstan region), to identify possible sources of infection and ways to solve the problem.

Results and discussion: Every year, cases of leishmaniasis are registered in South Kazakhstan region. In 2016, 178 cases of skin leishmaniasis were registered in SKR, including 61 children; in 2017 – 129 cases, including 53 children under 14 years. The greatest number of cases was observed in the Shardara, Arys and Otrar districts, where there was an increase in the number of mosquitoes. In Turkestan, Kentau, Sayram, Ordabasy, Tolebi districts recorded Ph.longiductus. In Shardara, it was decided, Otrar and aryssky areas recorded Ph. Papatasi.

As a result of natural climatic factors, anthropourgic foci, increasing the number of rodents, stray dogs, their migration, the boundaries of the natural foci and the area of infection CCHF and rabies increases.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is one of the most common natural-focal infectious diseases in the South of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Since 2009, there has been an increase in the incidence of CCHF in SKR. The reason for the stable existence of natural foci is the habitation of ixodic mites-keepers and carriers of the ccgl virus. In some areas, the index of tick infection with the ccgl virus reaches 3-5 % of the total number of samples studied. CCHF in South Kazakhstan was officially registered in 1999. During this period, 13 districts of the region became endemic in the ccgl. In SKR annually Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: in 2013 – 5 case, 2014-7 2015 - 6 20176г. – 15. In order to reduce the incidence of CCHF, it is necessary to have a planned control over ticks, an active sanitary and educational work among the population. To provide medical care upon admission to the hospital in each RMO, it is necessary to have a supply of antiviral drugs (ribavirin) and immune plasma from donors who have undergone CCHF.

Analysis of the incidence of rabies among people in South Kazakhstan region showed that the territory of South Kazakhstan region annually recorded cases of rabies among people, which is a particularly dangerous infection. In 2015, 2 cases of rabies among people were registered, 1 of them is a child from Shymkent and 1 adult from Tolebi district. In 2016, 5 cases were registered, including 2 children. ((Suzak, Kazygurt districts, Shymkent and Kentau). D 2017 4 patients with rabies, including 1 child. The source of infection is dogs; in South Kazakhstan and in Kazakhstan there is no lifetime and postmortem diagnosis of the rabies virus. To reduce the incidence of rabies, a systematic planned fight against rabies among animals is necessary on the basis of the destruction of stray dogs, anti-rabies vaccinations, active sanitary and educational work among the population.

The incidence of brucellosis remains one of the highest and SKR ranks third in the country. In 2016, 279 cases of newly diagnosed brucellosis were registered, including 42 children under 14 years, which is 27% less than in 2015. The largest number of patients were registered in Turkestan, Baidibek and Kazygurt regions. Therefore, it is necessary to establish continuity between all services dealing with brucellosis. On the territory of the South Kazakhstan region there are permanently dysfunctional lesions of anthrax. Last check of cutaneous anthrax in humans was in 2014 – 2 cases in the 2015-2016 academic year. cases of the disease among people was not.

Conclusion: Thus, for the implementation of monitoring, diagnosis, timely treatment, prognosis for individual zoonoses in the South Kazakhstan region, the implementation of preventive measures, it is necessary to create and develop a science-based Republican national program of epizootic and epidemic surveillance of zoonotic infections and widespread introduction of modern methods of diagnosis (ELISA, PCR).

Year: 2018
City: Shymkent
Category: Medicine