The topicality: in modern medicine people are beginning to forget about such important human qualities as courage, dedication and unselfishness which were the cornerstone of the principles of scientists and doctors of last years. They staked not only the lives, but also lives of the relatives as the purpose to save millions of people from diseases incurable at that time was for them meaning of life. A short of this article - to remind of those heroic acts which were made by people for the good of mankind and medicine.
The purpose: to get acquainted with historical aspects of fight against such infectious diseases as cholera, plague, poliomyelitis and also to study history of creation of a method of catheterization of heart.
Materials and methods: studying and the analysis of publications from printing sources, electron and information resources and video records.
The results: During studying of materials on this subject some of the most interesting examples of medical feats, one of which is Vladimir Aronovich Havkin's work, were taped - it is one of the most amazing examples of philanthrophy in medical practice. This person saved the world from two terrible diseases which claimed a set of the human lives. About three years Havkin in Paris was engaged in development of vaccine against the cholera originator under the leadership of Louis Pasteur. The experiment on animals came to the end with success and demanded to test vaccine on the person who became the scientist. 1892 became key for development of medicine. Havkin independently inoculated himself, and after a while repeated the procedure. Experience was successful, but, despite it, initially vaccine was perceived by the authorities in bayonets: in Russia where epidemic raged, unconditionally renounced saving "potion". The antigen framed by Havkin confirmed the effectiveness in the period of cholera epidemic in India where Vladimir was referred by the government of Britain. The courageous and self-sacrificing doctor inoculated more than 25 thousand people. Epidemic receded, and Havkin returned to France .
Max Pettenkofer is the person who declared "war" to cholera. Epidemic nearly took away life of his daughter and also its own. Suffering, endured by it, left a deep print in a douche of the doctor and induced to study ways which were gone by cholera.
Opening of a choleraic vibrio by the German microbiologist Robert Koch famous for the whole world claiming that this bacterium - the only originator of cholera  served as the beginning. Pettenkofer held other opinion. He considered that the vibrio doesn't represent larger danger, and was convinced that people caught cholera not only because of contact to patients. The main reason, according to him, was the fact that people didn't follow rules of personal hygiene and also used unboiled ground water which might contain the originator .
Unsuccessful tests on animals pushed Pettenkofer to make this experiment on themselves. In 1892 at the age of 73 years the doctor ventured a fearless step. With words: "Not without awe, not without pavor, I bring evidence to the judges and I want that these proofs united to all in great fight for the mankind benefit" - it accepted the culture of the originator inside in the face of witnesses. Success! Pettenkofer didn't catch . The experiment of the scientist was successful that refuted the theory of Koch and his supporters, and the doctor received the argument confirmed with experience for purity promoting as guarantee of preservation and promotion of health. Popular belief that Pettenkofer had cholera benign as sent it the weakened culture of the originator of cholera. Nevertheless the act of the scientist can be considered really heroic.
The doctor Verner Forsman in the late twenties of the XX century developed a heart catheterization method. Cardiologists of that time doubted success of this method and were sure that introduction to "the vital motor" of a foreign subject will lead to immediate death, but Verner didn't agree with them . Forsman, in secret from all, decided to test the invented method on himself, having told that, despite danger, he is ready to act to enrich knowledge of heart. Forsman, having made an incision a vein on a forearm, I entered into it a catheter – a long thin tubule. The first experience wasn't finished, but for the second time the doctor after all conducted an experiment, made a roentgen of own heart and was convinced that a catheter in it .
At the beginning of the 20th century a poliomyelitis accepted epidemic character that became in the USSR and the USA the real disaster. Tens of thousands of children annually became disabled people, one were affected by partial or full paralysis, and others just didn't maintain a fight with illness and died.
The solution of the problem of prophylaxis of a poliomyelitis in the middle of the XX century was entrusted to two scientific centers with the best scientists of the country. In Leningrad the department of virology of Institute of experimental medicine led by A.A. Smorodintsev was engaged in development of vaccine, and in Moscow M.P. Chumakov worked on vaccine. These scientists made the real feat, framed the vaccine against the virus of a poliomyelitis horrifying the whole world . They went to the USA for studying of experiences of Americans who considerably succeeded in this case. Having returned to Russia, scientists received the strain of the originator. Having made a set of experiments, Smorodintsev and Chumakov, at last, framed live vaccine, a set of times were influenced by it, but it was obvious insufficiently as vaccine was intended for children. The child who became the granddaughter Smorodintseva was necessary for experience. The scientist knew about all risks and outcomes to which he can lead introduction of vaccine with the weakened originators, but the purpose to salvage millions of children from this illness was for it at that time meaning of life .
Conclusion: I showed studying and the analysis of the studied literature that feats of doctors and scientists, became the key moments in the history of medicine. Each of these outstanding people of veins by the principle: "Shining others, I burn down itself", - which explains their really great acts. Now the given belief lost the importance. It is seldom possible to meet the doctor who would be so devoted to the business and people. This article shows, it is how important to keep in itself noble qualities of the doctor, this profession – a feat, and she demands dedication, purity of spirit and purity of thoughts.
List of references:
- Glyazer G. Dramaticheskaja medicina. Opyty vrachei na sebe. / G. Glyazer – M.: Editorial URSS, 2017. – Page 5 - 128.
- Lisitsin Yu.P. Istoriya mediciny. Textbook. - 2nd prod./ Yu.P. Lisitsin - M.: GEOTAR-media, 2015. – Page 220 – 256.
- Sorokina T.S. Istoriya mediciny. – 10th prod. / T.S. Sorokina – M.: Academiya, 2016. – Page 335 – 354.
- Sklyarov E.K., Zharov of L.V. Istoriya mediciny./ E.K. Sklyarov, L.V. Zharov – M.: Phoenix, 2015. – Page 192 – 286.