Bioprosthesis at the modern development stage

The topicality: the human body is far from perfect, the loss of a limb or organ, unfortunately, is not uncommon and constitutes a huge social problem. Part of the population has certain functional disorders that interfere with normal life. Bioprostheses are becoming more and more common. Thanks to them it has become possible to return the lost functions of the body and return the person to a full social life.

The purpose: to assess the possibility and quality of the use of bioprostheses at the present stage of development of the modern world.

Materials and methods: the basic facts from current publications containing information on modern bionic prostheses and the history of their creation, the realization of such devices in the present days, the detailed internal structure of high-tech prostheses were studied and compiled.

The results: the history of the creation of prosthetics. The evolution of prosthetics is a long and legendary history: from primitive mechanisms to complex modern structures.

Egyptians are pioneers in the creation of orthopedic technology. Their “rudimentary” prostheses were created from cloth, and it is believed that they were worn more for a sense of “integrity” than for their prosthetic functions.

In 1858, the first artificial leg was found in the city of Kapuya, which dates back to 300 BC. It was made of bronze and iron, with a wooden core, located below the knee.

In the dark ages, merchants and gunsmiths were mainly engaged in designing and creating artificial limbs. The development of prosthetics contributed representatives of other professions. So, watchmakers were useful for adding complex internal functions using springs and gears.

In 1536, Ambroise Pare created hinged prostheses for the upper and lower limbs. He modified the artificial leg below the knee, adding to it adjustable straps, knee lock control, and other technical features that are still used in modern devices [4]. This work became a reference and showed exactly how the prosthesis should work.

Peter Verdine in 1696 developed the first prosthetic leg below the knee, which does not require additional fixation [4]. Later it became the basis for modern prosthetics.

Modern stage. Today, a modern bionic prosthesis is an electronic-mechanical device. Their basis is:

Frame. Polyvinyl chloride, fiberglass, rigid and elastic foams, light metal alloys are widely used for its creation. This provides rigidity and durability of the prosthesis [5]. Another function of the frame is to protect electronic systems from damage. Prostheses are covered with a silicone or rubber sheath to enhance the aesthetic qualities.

Mechanics. The prosthesis has built-in mechanisms that make the device moveable. For example, hydraulic, spring or even pneumatic shock absorbers are used in artificial legs. They provide mitigation and distribution of shock loads during movement [1].

Control system. The prosthesis contains sensors of nerve signals and a processor that controls the drives.

Scientists have developed an artificial skin substitute for some models that “sense” touches, determine their strength and transmit information to the nervous system [3]. Due to this, patients have the opportunity to experience proprioceptive and tactile sensations.

Now dentures have a wide range of options for gripping and compressing objects. Thanks to the neurophysiological principle of the bionic prosthesis, it became possible to significantly simplify its management, as well as to partially return to the patient the feeling of having a full-fledged limb. With the help of bionic prostheses, a person can perform various household activities: use cutlery, write, work at a computer, tie shoelaces, open bottles, dress, climb stairs, and much more [2].

People who have lost limbs, cease to feel their inferiority, and the demand for bioprostheses is only growing. Unfortunately, the existing models of hands and feet are still not working freely and accurately [1]

Despite the existing functional deficiencies, their price is still high. Since most commercial models are difficult to design and manufacture. [1]

Conclusion: thus, at present, technical development in the field of bioprosthetics has reached the level that only a couple of decades ago appeared only on the pages of science fiction novels. Bioprosthetics faithfully moved in the direction of progress for many years. And now it makes the life of a person who survived the tragedy easier and more comfortable, returs the functions of the lost organs. It is worth to say that mankind has a great interest in this technology, which indicates the readiness of society to accept this level of technological progress in medicine At the moment, prosthetics is still very expensive and not available to everyone. However, there are government programs dealing with this issue. It is only necessary to develop and globalize them so that everyone with disabilities does not feel boundaries.

The list of references:

  1. Bionicheskie protezy: istoriya, principy raboty, poslednie dostizheniya [Ehlektronnyj-resurs] 2017 rezhim dostupa: https://robo-sapiens.ru/stati/bionicheskie-protezyi/
  2. Zhurnal “Kommersant Nauka”. - № 6, 05-09-2017, P. 44
  3. Zavyalov S. A., Mejgal A. Yu. Tekhnologii bioupravlyaemyh protezov segodnya i zavtra № 2, 2015, P. 36-42
  4. Istoriya implantiruemoj tekhniki. Protezy konechnostej [ehlektronnyj resurs]. - 2017 https://habr.com/post/400695/
  5. Ehnciklopediya polimerov. Pod red. Kollegiya Kabanova V. A. (glav.red.) T. 2 – M., Sovetskaya ehnciklopediya, 1974. P. 928
Year: 2018
City: Shymkent
Category: Medicine