Information technology in the professional field

Abstract

Advances in medicine in recent decades are in significant correlation with the advances in the information technology. Modern information technologies (IT) have enabled faster, more reliable and comprehensive data collection. These technologies have started to create a large number of irrelevant information, which represents a limiting factor and a real growing gap, between the medical knowledge on one hand, and the ability of doctors to follow its growth on the other. Furthermore, in our environment, the term technology is generally reserved for its technical component. Education means, learning, teaching, or the process of acquiring skills or behavior modification through various exercises. Traditionally, medical education meant the oral, practical and more passive transferring of knowledge and skills from the educators to students and health professionals. For the clinical disciplines, of special importance are the principles, such as, “learning at bedside,” aided by the medical literature. In doing so, these techniques enable students to contact with their teachers, and to refer to the appropriate literature. The disadvantage of these educational methods is in the fact, that teachers often do not have enough time. Additionally they are not very convenient to the horizontal and vertical integration of teaching; create weak or almost no self-education, as well as, low skill levels and poor integration of education with a real social environment. In this paper authors describe application of modern IT in medical education – their advantages and disadvantages comparing with traditional ways of education.

Key words: medicine, education, information technologies, distance learning.

The term technology is of Greek origin and means a skill, while the word logos implies – a science. Technology refers to the applied knowledge or the applied science. According to the “Office of Technology Assessment,” “Medical technology is a set of techniques, medicines, equipment, tools and procedures used by the health professionals in providing health care to the individuals and systems, in which such technology is used. Broader concept of medical technology constitutes the health technology, a term that includes all the procedures, tools and techniques that are used in order to improve health, as well as the simplest and the most effective way to treat and rehabilitate certain population. Information technology, in medicine and healthcare can be presented by one complex technological model, (e.g. Technology Package), which includes all the components of technological packages, such as: hardware, software, brain ware and or ware that can actually cover all the medical technology and technology in health activities. Advances in medicine in recent decades are in significant correlation with the advances in the information technology. Modern information technologies have enabled faster, more reliable and comprehensive data collection. These technologies have started to create a large number of irrelevant information, which represents a limiting factor and a real growing gap, between the medical knowledge on one hand, and the ability of doctors to follow its growth on the other. Furthermore, in our environment, the term technology is generally reserved for its technical component. This terminology essentially means not only the purchase of the computer and related equipment, but also the technological foresight and technological progress, which are defined as the specific combination of fundamental scientific, research and development work that gives a concrete result; – (e.g. from fundamental discoveries to their application in the form of innovations) .

Education means, learning, teaching, or the process of acquiring skills or behavior modification through various exercises. Traditionally, medical education meant the oral, practical and more passive transferring of knowledge and skills from the educators to students and health professionals. For the clinical disciplines, of special importance are the principles, such as, “learning at bedside,” aided by the medical literature. In doing so, these techniques enable students to contact with their teachers, and to refer to the appropriate literature. The disadvantage of these educational methods is, in the fact, that teachers often do not have enough time. Additionally they are not very convenient to the horizontal and vertical integration of teaching; create weak or almost no selfeducation, as well as, low skill levels and poor integration of education with a real social environment.

Information technologies (i.e. ITs) have the capacity, more than any other medium, to facilitate student learning and problem solving, in addition to many other benefits.

A few decades ago, with the emergence of television, IT was expected to becoming the dominant medium, when it came to the information technologies that are used in medical education. Today it is clear that computers and computer technology took over the primacy of it, among other things, because they are already, by definition, either interactive mediums or require constant engagement of students and teachers.

Computer, in general terms, is the device, by which the information is processed, or a device for the automatic processing of data of numerical and non-numerical nature. These devices comprise the bases for computer information systems (e.g CIS) or (i.e. information technology packages), which traditionally have been composed of at least two components or two subsystems consisting of multiple elements such as [1]:

 Hardware

 Software

These two components act synergistically and both are essentially important for the proper operation of a computer system and its use in the medical education. Therefore, Hardware refers to all mechanical, visible and “tangible” computers’ components. We can divide the elements of the hardware system into several groups that act in interactive computer systems such as:

  • Dataentrymechanism;
  • Dataprocessingmechanism;
  • Datastoragemechanism;
  • A mechanism for retrieving of the processed data.

Software part of the computer is a general term for software of a computer, (i.e. a set of instructions prepared so that it is performing in an appropriate way to obtain an adequate final result). The software is further divided into the system and application software. System components would belong to the operating system, (i.e., now the predominant Microsoft Windows operating systems, and to a lesser extent Linux, Mac, etc.). Examples of the application software are components of the Microsoft Office (Suite) package; (e.g. Microsoft Word processing, Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, Microsoft Access database, Microsoft Power-Point presentations etc., and the extremely large number of other programs (applications), used for various purposes). In this context, we will mention another term that is rarely used – “a Firmware”, which is generally described as a special type of software that provides system functions within a computer system. By the end user.

Software for Specialized Solution in Professional Sphere

In the previous chapters, we looked at software .There are system and applied software. In this chapter, we dwell in more detail on the applied software.

Applied software is a set of application programs, with the help of which,in this workplace , specific tasks are performed . These are end-user programs, general and specialized .They are designed to solve problems in a specific subject area.

The applied software of the specialized (professional) sphere consists of separate tasks of users and automated systems created based on these (packages) applications.

Literature

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Year: 2018
City: Shymkent
Category: Medicine