The topicality: in recent years, because of the continuous steady growth of the antibiotic resistance of microorganisms, bacteriophages, because of the mechanism of their life cycle, can also effectively destroy the cell wall of bacteria, just as a century ago. Positive characteristics of bacteriophages: they has no toxic effect on the human body or allergic reactions, and has their own immunological activity. The cost of creating new bacteriophages is significantly less than the development of antibiotics. The use of phages does not preclude the use of other medicines. No contraindication for use of bacteriophages has been established [1, 2, 3].
The purpose: to assess the possibility of effective use of bacteriophages as an additional method for the treatment of acute abdominal pathology, namely appendicitis, peritonitis and cholecystitis.
Materials and methods: analysis of foreign and domestic literature reflecting the action of bacteriophages on infectious agents - the causative agents of acute surgical diseases of the abdominal cavity.
The results: the tasks of phagotherapy in acute surgical infections of the abdominal cavity, in particular peritonitis, is to eliminate the cause of peritonitis, to evacuate the contents of the abdominal cavity, fibrin layers on the intestinal loops, great omentum, parietal peritoneum, to wash the last one with the saline, followed by treatment of the abdominal cavity with bacteriophage preparations. It should be noted that it is more appropriate to use polyvalent bacteriophages (pyobacteriophage polyvalent (Sextaphag), Intesti Bacteriophage, pseudomonas bacteriophage), because the main cause of the development of most infectious processes is the association of microorganisms.
Pyobacteriophage polyvalent is used for treatment and prevention of inflammatory and enteric diseases caused by staphylococci, streptococci, Proteus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The instruction for the drug includes the following indications for the treatment of surgical infections (festering wounds, burns, abscesses, cellulitis, boils, carbuncles, hidradenitis, felon, perirectitis, mastitis, bursitis, osteomyelitis) [3, 4, 5].
In the treatment of acute cholecystitis, according to literary data, bacteriophage staphylococcal liquid is most often used. The medicine is prescribed for peroral administering or through a probe. Peroral administering of the medicine is used for 1.5-2 hours before meals, 2 times a day. Doses depend on age: from 10 to 50 ml for peroral administering and from 20 to 100 ml in enema. Duration of treatment is 5-7 days .
The administering preparations of bacteriophages during appendectomy shortened the healing time of infected wounds [6, 7, 8]. During the study, patients had no pain in the area of postoperative wounds, body temperature returned to normal, and bacterial contamination of the wound decreased as well .
The knowledge accumulated today in the field of the genetics of bacteria indicates the important role of phages in the prevention and treatment of nosocomial infections, the correction of bacteriocarrier in medical personnel.
Conclusions: bacteriophages are unique microorganism. A group of therapeutic and prophylactic drugs with unique qualities has been created on the basis of bacteriophages. The main advantage of bacteriophage preparations that there is no side effects or the destruction of normal microflora. The natural physiological mechanisms of interaction of phages and bacteria that underlie their action make it possible to predict the infinite variety of both bacteriophages themselves and possible methods for their use. As the bacteriophage collections expand, no doubt, new target pathogens will appear, the range of diseases in which phages can be used both in monotherapy and as part of complex treatment regimens will expand.
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