The topicallity: in recent years, such a direction in science as cyber-prosthetics, combining medicine, neurophysiology, engineering, programming, has been steadily developing. The need to create such a prosthesis, which would be not just a tool that performs either a passive decorative function, or a simple mechanical stop, but could become a full-fledged replacement for a lost limb, i.e. would make it possible to perform at least everyday tasks, such as walking, self-care, writing, etc., and, in the long term, more complex activities. This implies the need to create feedback with the prosthesis due to the stimulation of peripheral nerve endings, the creation of multifunctional electrodes with a long term of use, the importance of recreating the sensation of pressure, temperature, applied force, proprioception, etc [1, 4].
The purpose: to study the history of cyber prosthetics and its development prospects.
Materials and methods: in the course of this study, analysis and systematization of literature data on the problem of cyber prosthetics was made.
The results: human movement obeys all physical laws that determine the movement of any material object on Earth. These are the laws of universal attraction, the laws of Newton, and the laws of hydromechanics, vibrational and wave motions, etc. Movement, as a rule, is very complex, since the human motor apparatus is a multi-link mechanical system consisting of bones, joints, muscles, elements of the nervous system. Naturally, if a link is damaged, a person’s motor activity is disturbed, and when a limb is lost, it becomes impossible at all. Also, in addition to the motor function, the sensory function is also lost. Even if a person succeeds in restoring motor function through various prostheses, he still cannot return to a normal, full-fledged life due to the lack of ability to feel touch, compressive force, temperature, etc. At the moment, for a variety of motor and sensory impairments, there are no effective treatments, and the completion of all the functions of a lost limb, unfortunately, is not yet possible. Therefore, the development of multifunctional robotic limbs - one of the most important tasks of medicine today [2, 5].
Prosthetics has its long history, during which primitive devices were replaced by more and more complex mechanical structures. The first mentions of prosthetics go back to 1500 BC. Then it was a simple fabric or wooden cosmetic prostheses. Over time, the design became more complicated, functional prostheses appeared, which made it possible, for example, to hold a shield, then traction prostheses, which could be controlled by springs suspended on leather straps, etc. The development of bionic prostheses begins in the 20th century .
The brain-computer interface (BCI) is a promising treatment for many neuromuscular disorders and more. An BCI is a computerized information management system that records brain signals, analyzes them and translates them into commands that arrive at the output technical devices to perform the desired action. The purpose of this technology is to restore the lost functions of the human body. It allows you to establish the relationship between intact areas of the brain or the nerve endings of the body and output devices that compensate for motor and sensory functions. With the help of an BCI, patients will be able to restore mobility (through exoskeletons, robotic limbs, bio-prostheses - motor BCIs) and sensitivity using sensory BCIs connecting the NS somatosensory parts with bio- prostheses equipped with touch, temperature, pain and vibration sensors and causing sensations through electrical stimulation of the cortex. There are also bidirectional BCIs that simultaneously read and betray information.
Sensory BCI can be used to restore hearing, vision, taste, smell, tactile and proprioceptive sensitivity, sense of balance. Such an BCI replaces the damaged sensors of a person and are embedded in the circuit of the human body, i.e. connect to neuronal circuits. This transfer of information is carried out mainly by electrostimulation of nerve endings.
Bidirectional BCIs (brain-laptop-brain interface) are capable of simultaneously deciphering brain activity and transmitting artificial sensory signals to it, creating a feedback loop. The principle of operation is as follows: two groups of microelectrodes are implanted into the cerebral cortex - one reads the brain signals and transmits them to a decoder, which in turn transmits a signal to a computer or mechanism, the other group transmits artificial tactile sensations back to the brain [3, 6].
As a result of theoretical research, it was found that modern advances in the field of creating a prosthesis that could completely replace a lost limb are of little effect. At the moment there is no prosthesis that could restore a full reception. However, research in this area is moving more and more forward with each passing year, which gives great hope to people with disabilities.
Conclusions: the development of a feedback system in bio-prosthetics is one of the promising areas of development of medicine, bioengineering and robotics. The analysis of the literature showed that the technology of neural interfaces, in spite of a number of unsolved problems, has already been successfully used in medicine to replace or restore the function of damaged organs. In the future, it is planned to significantly improve the work of bionic prostheses, which may allow a person to fully restore the function of lost limbs.
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