Preventive vaccination in the republic of Kazakstan and in the south Kazakhstan region


Immunization is the main component of human rights to health. By estimates of World Health Organization vaccination allows to prevent about 2.5 million cases of death annually. Before vaccination period there was an increased mortality, especially among children, but with the advent of the vaccines against many infectious diseases it has given chance of the correct development of the child. The vaccinated children are protected from many infectious diseases what statistical data and in general a situation in the country confirm. Ultimate goal of preventive vaccination is elimination of a disease[1]. Keywords: preventive vaccination, incidence, efficiency, vaccine, research

Objective of this research:The literary review on preventive vaccinationproblem in the Republic of Kazakhstan and in the South Kazakhstan region

Infectious diseases are the most widespread on the globe. Epidemics natural smallpox, cholera, plagues, diphtherias, measles, whooping cough, poliomyelitis claimed the numerous human lives still until recently and caused an irreparable loss not only to health, but also an economic condition of society. The beginning of successful fight against infectious diseases is considered 1798 when the English doctor E. Jenner by means of an inoculation to the person of cow smallpox has warned infection of natural smallpox [1]. The medicine reasonably refers preventive vaccine to number of the victories in fight for human health. Reasonably because by means of vaccination it was succeeded to get rid of such most dangerous infection as natural smallpox, from poliomyelitis huge territories are free in the world and there is a stage-by-stage elimination of measles and replacement of a rubella [2].Preventive vaccinationsystem of the actions which are carried out for prevention, restriction of distribution and elimination of infectious diseases by carrying out preventive inoculations. Preventive vaccinationis carried out by the vaccine medicines containing specific antigen. Preventive vaccinationis very productive and economic method of fight against infectious diseases [3].

According to WHO experts vaccination and clear drinking water - the only proved measures which are really influencing public health [4].In 1999. The centers for control over incidence (CDC) USA have published the list of 10 greatest achievements of health care in the country for 1900-1999. The first in the list of 10 greatest achievements of health care of the 20th century is immunological prevention. [5]. Presently the percent of infectious diseases grows that is connected with emergence new and a mutation of old activators. Children what promotes not to the created immunity and refusal of parents of vaccination [6]. To are especially subject to infectious diseases. Without vaccine (so without immunity) the child is unarmed before a disease and risks to get sick at the first contact with the carrier. If to cancel vaccination, then a large number of seldom found or disappeared diseases again will become widespread [7].Preventive vaccinationis divided into 2 types: planned and emergency.

Planned preventive vaccinationis carried out according to the National calendar of inoculations of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the bulk of citizens of the country. The following groups of the population are subject to planned infectious and parasitic diseases inoculations: 1) persons on age according to established periods of carrying out preventive inoculations; 2) the population living and working in the natural centers of infectious diseases (spring and summer tick-borne encephalitis, anthrax, a tularemia, plague); 3) the persons belonging to risk groups by the nature of the professional activity: health workers (viral hepatitis "B", flu); workers of sewer and treatment facilities (typhoid), etc.[8]. The emergency preventive vaccination is carried out directly at contact with an infection source, at accommodation in epidemic unsuccessful territory. Carry biologically active agents causing a condition of immunological protection, changing functions of immune system or necessary for statement of immunodiagnostic reactions to immunobiological medicines. Apply the domestic and foreign medical immunobiological medicines registered according to the legislation RK to immunological prevention. Considering the mechanism of action and the nature of immunobiological medicines, they are divided into the following group: vaccine (live and killed) and also by other medicines prepared from microorganisms (eubiotik) or their components and derivatives (anatoxin, allergens, phages); immunoglobulins and immune serums; immunological modulators endogenous (immunological toxin) and exogenous origin; diagnostic medicines.

Live vaccines are the live (weakened) strains of bacteria or viruses differing in the lowered virulence at the expressed immunogenicity, i.e. ability to cause formation of active artificial immunity. Carry the vaccines against the following infections to live: tuberculosis; tularemia; yellow fever; natural smallpox; rage; poliomyelitis; reproach; brucellosis; anthrax; plague; Q-fevers; flu; epidemic parotitis; tick-borne encephalitis; rubella [9]. Despite introduction in practice of new vaccines of the third andgenerations, live vaccines don't lose the importance and are used in preventive vaccine of the operated infections as the most effective immunobiological medicines [10].

The killed vaccines are the strains of bacteria and viruses killed (inactivated) by heating or chemicals (formalin, alcohol, acetone). Inactivated, or the killed, it is expedient to divide vaccines on corpuscular and molecular. The killed vaccines usually less immunogen, than live that defines need of their repeated introduction. Carry to the killed vaccines: typhoid; cholera; whooping cough; leptospirosis; vaccine against tick-borne encephalitis, etc.

Corpuscular vaccines - the most ancient and traditional vaccines. Now apply to their receiving not only the inactivated integral microbic cages or virus particles, but also supramolecular structures taken from them containing protective antigens.

Chemical vaccines - a kind of the killed vaccines, however in them instead of an integral microbic cage or a virus immunogen function is performed by the soluble Antigens extracted from them in the chemical way. Put the chemical vaccines against a typhoid, paratyphus and yes Century into practice. Anatoxin as the immunizing factor contain the ekzotoxin toxin of the forming bacteria deprived of toxic properties as a result of chemical or thermal influence. Now apply anatoxin against the following infections: diphtherias; tetanus; cholera; staphylococcal infection; botulism; gas gangrene.

The medicines containing a combination of antigens are known as the associated vaccines. In our country apply the following associated vaccines: ADT-L (against diphtheria, tetanus); MRP(against measles, a rubella and epidemic parotitis); AaWDT+Hpf+VHB+IPV (against whooping cough with an acellular whooping cough component, diphtherias, tetanus, viral hepatitis B, a hemophilic infection like b and the inactivated poliovaccine);AaWDT+Hpf+IPV (against whooping cough with an acellular whooping cough component, diphtherias, tetanus, a hemophilic infection like b and the inactivated poliovaccine)[9].

The preventive vaccinationof infectious diseases performed on the basis of the principles of evidential medicine taking into account social and economic conditions of certain regions has to become one of the main instruments of realization of population policy of our country [11].

The national calendar of preventive vaccination is the normative legal act establishing terms and an order of carrying out to citizens of preventive inoculations. It is the official document of paramount importance on ensuring epidemiological wellbeing in our country.

The national calendar of preventive vaccination of Kazakhstan has provided a possibility of prevention and spread of 21 infections. In a planned order vaccination generally against 11 children's infections is performed: tuberculosis, viral hepatitis B, poliomyelitis, whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, measles, rubella, epidemicparotitis, hemophilic and pneumococcal infection. Also according to the Government resolution according to plan and according to epidemiological indications vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis, plague, a typhoid and rage, flu, viral hepatitis A, anthrax and tularemia (table 1) is provided[3].

Table 1. National calendar of preventive vaccination of the Republic of Kazakhstan [3].


Types of vaccination











1-4 day of life




2 months





3 months




4 months





12-15 months






18 months




6 years

( 1class)







16 years




Every 10





Monovalent vaccine: ADT-L- against diphtheria and tetanus;

BCG- against tuberculosis;

Pneumo- against a pneumococcal infection;

VHB- against viral hepatitis B;

Polio- against poliomyelitis- oral/ inactivated

The combined vaccine MRP- against measles, a rubella and epidemic parotitis;

AaWDT+Hpf+VHB+IPV - against whooping cough with an acellular whooping cough component, diphtheria, tetanus, viral hepatitis B, hemophilic infection types b and inactivated poliovaccine;

AaWDT+Hpf+IPV- against whooping cough with an acellular whooping cough component, diphtheria, tetanus, hemophilic infection types b, and inactivated poliovaccine[12].

Contraindications to vaccination. Despite the listed above progress, the relation of many doctors and parents to vaccination remains alerted, quite often observe unreasonable branches from inoculations [13]. All contraindications share on: true, false, absolute, relative, temporary, constant, the general, private. The true-real contraindications listed in the instruction to vaccines and in the leading documents (orders, health regulations and the international recommendations). As a rule, they are caused by certain components of vaccines. False - contraindications which those aren't. As a rule, their authorship belongs to doctors and patients who "preserve" against inoculations on the basis of universal and general scientific reasons - "he such small", "time is ill, means the immunity is reduced". Absolute - the contraindications having absolute force. In the presence of such contraindications - this inoculation isn't carried out under no circumstances. Relative are true contraindications on which final decision is made by the doctor on the basis of additional factors of risk - proximity of epidemic, degree of probability of contact with an infection source, probability that the child will be able to receive vaccine in the next visit of policlinic next time, etc. Temporary - contraindications at present, however after time they can be removed. Constants - contraindications which won't be removed eventually.

For example, primary immunodeficiency caused by deep defect of immune system. The general - contraindications the general for all inoculations. In practice to the general contraindications, refer existence of sharply current infection which is followed by temperature increase, exacerbation of a chronic disease or an acute disease. Private - contraindications which belong only to this inoculation or concrete vaccine, but don't concern all rest. For example, pregnancy which is a contraindication to inoculations live vaccines (a rubella, yellow fever), but not inactivated (flu, the hepatitis B)[3].After vaccinecomplications can be connected with features of the health vaccinated - for example, an allergy to vaccine components, an immunodeficiency, violation of the Central nervous system in the anamnesis, chronic diseases [14].

Conclusions:The provided data show that modern vaccines allow to reduce significantly the frequency of acute infectious diseases with a minimum of collateral reactions. Thanks to vaccination it was succeeded to reduce sharply incidence of many children's infections, to provide effective protection of the population in the centers of a number of bacterial and viral infections.


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Year: 2017
City: Shymkent
Category: Medicine