In this article, a study is given of biological active substances(BAS), such as arbutin in the plant raw material Astragalus alopecias. Results of qualitative and quantitative determination.
Key words: Qualitative and quantitative composition, arbutin, raw materials, standardization of raw materials.
Introduction. Arbutin, like glycosylated hydroquinone, reduces the risk of cancer. Arbutin, a transformed hydroquinone, provides an antimicrobial effect in the urinary tract.
To develop methods for standardizing raw materials, it was necessary to study its chemical composition and identify the most significant biologically active substances (BAS).
Purpose of the study. Qualitative and quantitative detection of arbutin in plants Astragalus alopecias
Materials and methods of research.
Experimental part. The object of the study was the aerial part of the plant from the genus Astragalus fam.Fabaceae Astragalus alopecias Pall. Raw materials were collected in two pilot sites «Bakhtyolen» and «Physcomplex» RSE "South-West Scientific and Production Center for Livestock and Plant Growing", the plots are located in the flat zone of the Kyzylkum Desert and the Piedmont belt of the Western Tien Shan mountain system in the South Kazakhstan Region. The climate of the territory is sharply continental with hot, dry summers and quite dry winters, strong winds, unstable snow cover.
Qualitative determination of arbutin in Astragalus alopecias.
0.5 grams of plant material, ground to a particle of 1 mm, was placed in a test tube, 10 ml of water was added, boiled for 2-3 minutes and filtered through a paper filter.
1. To 1 ml of the filtrate was added a small crystalline ferrous sulphate. A dark purple color appeared.
2. To 2 ml of the filtrate were added 4 drops of iron ammonium alum. There was a black color.
Quantitative determination of arbutin. 0.5 grams of Astragalus Leucid leaves, crushed and sifted through a sieve with a diameter of 1 mm, placed in a 100 ml flask, filled with 50 ml of water and boiled on the tile for 30 minutes. To reduce evaporation, a funnel was inserted into the flask. Hot extraction was filtered into a 100 ml volumetric flask through a paper filter, avoiding the ingress of plant material onto the filter. The vegetable material in the flask was again filled with 25 ml of water and boiled for 20 minutes. After that, the hot extraction along with the raw material was transferred to a filter, the filter cake was washed twice with hot water (10 ml each), 3 ml of lead acetate solution was added to the whole filtrate, the main one for the precipitation of ballast substances, stirred, cooled and the volume of the filtrate was adjusted to the mark with water.
The flask was placed in a boiling bath and kept until the precipitate was completely coagulated. The hot liquid was completely filtered into a dry flask through a paper filter, covering the funnel with a petri dish (in order to avoid evaporation), then hydrolysis of arbutin is carried out: after cooling, 1 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid was added to the filtrate, the flask was weighed with an error of ± 0.01 grams, refrigerator and heated on the tile for 1.5 hours, maintaining a uniform and weak boiling.
After cooling and adjusting the initial mass, the liquid was filtered into a dry flask, 0.1 gram of zinc dust was added to the filtrate and shaken for 5 minutes to recover quinones that can be formed from hydroquinone while heating the sample on the tile in the presence of sulfuric acid, then liquid neutralized by sodium litmus hydrogen carbonate (about 1-1.5 grams) added another 2.0 grams of sodium bicarbonate; after dissolving it, the liquid was filtered into a dry flask through a paper filter.
50 ml of the filtrate (pipetted), which corresponds to half of the sample, was placed in a 500 ml flat bottom flask, 1 ml of a starch solution, 20 ml of distilled water was added and immediately titrated with iodine solution (0.1 mol / l) until blue staining appeared.
The content of arbutin in terms of absolutely dry raw materials in percent (X) was calculated by the formula:
V V X 0.01361x 2 X100 X100 ,
Х = ,where
m x(100 - W)
0.01361 - the amount of arbutin corresponding to 1 ml of iodine solution (0.1 mol / l), in grams;
V - the volume of iodine solution (0,1mol / l) used for extracting titration in ml;
m- mass of raw materials, in grams;
W - poterya mass upon drying of raw materials, in percent.
0,6 X 0,01361 X 2 x100 x100
0,5 x(100 - 4)
Conclusions: The qualitative reactions proved the presence of arbutin in the raw materials under study. The quantitative content of arbutin is 3.4%.
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