Gymosperms of Kazakhstan as environmental bioindicators

Tasks of research. Gymnosperms of Kazakhstan, their role in nature and significance in the process of region environment improving.

Studying morphological peculiarities, number, diversity and nature of dispersal of gymnosperms on the territory of Kazakhstan.

Making analysis of influence of gymnosperms on general state of environment on the basis of studied data and suggest possible ways of solving the regional environmental problems

Practical part - In the upper part of Almaty city, the South Capital of Kazakhstan, there is a Botanic garden where Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction of Plants of the Republic of Kazakhstan is located.

Botanic garden occupies 5-hectare territory with laboratories, greenhouse, decorative plants; it is this place we selected for conduction of complex research of gymnosperms as environmental bioindicators.

In order to conduct my stationary research I chose Botanic garden as experimental site as this territory has various kinds of gymnosperms pine trees mainly of wood species many of which have been growing there for 60-70 years; also there are younger plants.

We got acquainted with exposition of gymnosperms, studied the conditions of growing, pullulation and development of gymnosperm representatives and with the help of specialists dendrologists we selected the research objects: juniper, arborvitae, Tien-Shan spruce, Scotch pine and European spruce.

Results - During observations we noticed the differences in physiological state of trees: in north-eastern part Tien-Shan spruce, Scotch pine and European spruce have sick and damaged appearance (yellow and casting needles, damaged wood and stopping of growth, blackening of tree tops and large amount of seedless dry strobile); further, in the central part of Botanic garden trees and bushes have healthy adequate appearance (needles of dark green, pyramidal crown development, large amount of seed strobile, body wood is in good condition and, as a result, volatile oils can be felt); in the southern part coniferous wood species form a massif consisting of long-living trees with the height of around 10 meters, having powerful root system and damaged appearance (yellow and fully casted needles, damaged wood, naked stalks and absence of branches in the lower crown area, blackening of tree tops and large amount of seedless empty dry strobile). Besides, after the hurricane wind happened a few days ago many fallen trees with broken bodies can be seen.

Conclusion - Studies have proven that degree of air contamination in the series of cases is positively related to the quantitative change in various morphological signs of phyto biota objects.

A complex approach to assessment of air environment of Almaty city was used including the analysis of existing data on territorial pollution, assessment of the environment with bioindication methods.

All necessary measures on improvement of the environmental state are being applied from the side of state, which are based on arrangement of certain environmental measures (planting forests in inhabited areas, improvement of technologies of air cleaning).

Ways of solving the issues -

  1. Don’t cutting of trees in the city.
  2. Environmentally safe (green) transport of Almaty.
  3. Gas pipe construction start. It’s so harmful

4)Pollution of city and region territory with SHW

5) Future Energy EXPO 2017

6) Metro line is widely used. Further expansion of route network is planned to cover the most part of the city including suburbs.


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Year: 2017
City: Shymkent
Category: Medicine