Equilibrium methods of extraction in solid-liquid systems assume the equality of substances concentration at all points of the system, while the extractive substances are distributed at the extraction stage in proportion to the volumes of the liquid that forms the internal and external juices.
At present, the measure of the volume of the liquid forming the internal juice is considered to be the absorption coefficient or the porosity of the raw material. But both these indicators are only a measure of free space, in which a certain amount of extragent can fit. Plant raw materials, having a certain porosity, contain extractive substances and moisture as well. The volume of the extragent entering the raw material depends on the porosity. However, in the absorbed extragent, the extractive substances and water contained in the medicinal raw material dissolve, so the volume of the solution formed in the raw materials is much larger than the volume of the absorbed extragent. The measure of the volume of internal juice is the coefficient of internal juice formation. For a more efficient process of extracting, predicting and normalizing (standardization) of the quality of extracts, it is necessary to know the technological properties of medicinal plant material .
The purpose of the study was to establish the technological properties of the herb of the Phlomis thapsoides Bunge growing in the Farish district of the Dzhizak region of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
Materials and methods: evaluation of the degree of extractability of the raw material and the yield of the finished product is given by the amount of extractive and active substances. It was established that the extractive substances content in the studied raw material made 20.82% (extragent - 70% ethanol).
From the technological parameters of raw materials are studied: bulk density, the coefficient of filling, absorption, and increase in volume when dissolving extractives, the formation of internal juice.
Bulk mass (density) should be taken into account when determining the volume occupied by dry and swollen raw materials, external juice, which allow you to determine the ratio of raw materials to extragent, the change in the volume of internal and external juice when swelling raw materials, the concentration of substances in the internal and external juice when their volumes change.
Bulk mass (density) serves as a measure of the volume occupied by a unit of mass of the crushed raw material. The filling factor (coefficient of filling) of the raw material is the volume of liquid necessary to fill the voids (spaces, gaps) between the particles of a unit of mass of the dry, tightly packed raw materials. The displacement coefficient (factor) of raw materials is the volume of liquid displaced when a unit of mass of the dry raw material is immersed in it.
These three indicators of technological properties of raw materials are determined simultaneously.
Method of determination. About 50.0 g of the crushed raw material is placed in a cylinder with ground glass cork of 500 cm3 capacity and compacted until the volume change ceases, the volume is fixed and 400 cm3 of extragent is poured into the cylinder.
The contents of the cylinder are stirred for 2 minutes to remove air bubbles from the surface of the raw material particles and the total volume of the raw material and extragent is fixed in the cylinder in the level of liquid, after which it is closed with a stopper and left for 24 hours for swelling. Then the raw material is pressed with a grate, bringing the volume to the initial, and the extraction is drained fixing the volume. Calculations are carried out.
The absorption coefficient of the raw material is the volume of the extragent absorbed by the unit of mass of the raw material during its swelling.
The coefficient of formation of internal juice is the volume of internal juice formed in a unit of mass of raw material when the capillary moisture and extractive substances are dissolved in the absorbed extragent.
The coefficient of volume increase when dissolving extractive substances is an increase in the volume of the extragent when a unit of mass of extractive substances is dissolved in it.
Method of determination. 100.0 g of crushed raw material with a moisture content of 8.3% and a content of extractive substances of 20.82% are placed in a previously weighed diffuser. Raw materials are compacted and weighed.
Having removed the stopper with the tap closed, the raw material is poured by the extragent to form a layer of liquid above the surface of the raw material 5 cm high. Press the grate to the surface of the raw material, close the diffuser with a lid and weigh. Extraction is carried out for 24 hours, periodically mixing. Then the extract is poured out into a pre-weighed cylinder, the volume is fixed, the cylinder with the extract is weighed.
25 ml of filtered extract is placed in a weighing bottle previously weighed and weighed. The extract is evaporated to dryness, brought to constant weight at a temperature of 100°C for
3 hours. Calculations are carried out .
Results and discussion: as a result of the study, the technological properties of the herb of Phlomis thapsoides Bunge were established: bulk density - 0.35 g / cm3; coefficient of filling of raw materials - 1.72 cm3 / g; displacement coefficient (factor) of raw materials - 1.35 cm3 / g; the absorption coefficient is 2.25 cm3 / g; the coefficient of formation of internal juice - 3.2 cm3 / g; coefficient of volume increase when dissolving extractive substances - 2.11 cm3 / g.
Conclusions: as a result of the research, the technological properties of the raw material of Phlomis thapsoides Bunge were established, which are necessary for more efficient conducting of the extraction process, predicting and normalizing (standardization) of the quality of the extracts.
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