This article provides a hygienic assessment of soil contamination with lead in kindergartens and a series of psychological tests to determine the effect of lead on the mental development of children.
Key words: lead, influence on children's organism, pollution level, preschool institutions.
Actuality of the topic: In nature, lead is ubiquitous, but it is not a vital element. Over the past decades, the level of concentration in nature is increasingly increasing due to anthropogenic loads. The main source from which lead enters the human body is food, along with an important role played by inhaled air, and children also swallowed lead containing dust. A special effect of lead on the nervous system of a person, which leads to a decrease in intelligence, causes a change in physical activity, coordination of hearing, affects the cardiovascular system, leading to heart disease. This has a negative impact on the health of the population and, in the first place, children who are most susceptible to lead poisoning.
Goal: hygienic assessment of soil contamination with lead in kindergartens, impact on children's body.
Materials and methods of research: accounting and reporting documentation of preschool institutions, statistical analysis, conducting a number of psychological tests, soil sampling, and review of literature data. Results of the study: lead is a dangerous chemical substance (metal), which, when it enters the human body, acts as a neurotoxin. Lead not only disrupts the normal development of the fetus, adversely affects the health and behavior of young children, but also changes the functioning of the brain and the nervous system of adults. The high concentration of lead in the human body leads to chronic damage to the kidneys, disrupts the reproductive organs, raises blood pressure, causes nausea and vomiting.
Lead is still used in the manufacture of some paints, children's toys, ceramics, gasoline, in the production of lithium batteries. Adults and children are at increased risk of getting lead into the bloodstream through contaminated water, soil and air.
Pollution of the environment by lead and its compounds is a major environmental problem for Kazakhstan. In particular, this is one of the main problems of lead contamination of environmental objects in the South Kazakhstan region, where as a result of the long-term work of the lead plant, a zone of "historical" lead contamination of soil in a large area of Shymkent has developed.
Almost the entire territory of the city of Shymkent has a level of soil contamination with lead exceeding the Maximum Permissible Concentration (32 mg / kg). The minimum content of lead in the soil in the study area is 11 mg / kg, the maximum - 22175 mg / kg, the average content of the city - 533 mg / kg (exceeding the maximum permissible concentration - 16.5 times). The total area of the city with a concentration of more than 400 mg / kg is 3300 hectares, including the city with a concentration of 400 mg / kg to 1000 - 1600 hectares, the city with a concentration of more than 1000 mg / kg - 1700 hectares. Considering that the territory of the city in the existing administrative boundaries is 39.8 thousand hectares, the contaminated area (more than 400 mg / kg) accounts for 8.3%.
The most polluted soils on the territory of schools, kindergartens and multi-storey, single-storey buildings:
- the area of playing and sports grounds of schools (20 schools) - 49655 m2 (4.97 ha);
- the area of playing and sports grounds for kindergartens (12) - 15235 m2 (1.52 hectares);
- the area of playgrounds and sports grounds of the multi-storey building zone is 160,000 m2 (16 hectares);
- the area of land plots of the one-storied building zone is 2840000 m2 (284 hectares).
To determine the hygienic assessment of soil contamination with lead, we conducted soil sampling of playgrounds and sports grounds, examined the accounting and reporting documentation in preschool children's institutions (№1, №2, №3), conducted a number of psychological tests to determine the effect of lead on children's organisms .
The results of land samples, for example, in the children's preschool institution №1, amounted to 412 mg / kg, the maximum permissible level of lead here exceeded 12.7 times. In the children's preschool institution №2, the lead level was 323 mg / kg, the maximum permissible level of lead here exceeded 9.3 times. At the time of the survey, the number of children of preschool institution №1 was estimated at -270, the actual number was -259, of which the number of pre-preschool groups was -70, preschool age -200. There was no number of children in the pre-school group-11, the reason for the absence-for health reasons.
In addition to defining the hygienic assessment of soil contamination with lead, we conducted a number of psychological tests for logical and abstract thinking, attentiveness, intelligence and erudition among children of the senior preschool groups in preschool institutions №1 and 2, a test game for the development of speech, for determining influence of lead on the mental development of children. 68% of children from preschool institutions №1 and 84% of children from preschool institutions №2 coped with the tasks performed as a result of the tests. Reduction of mental abilities are observed in preschool institutions №1.
Children of preschool age are most susceptible to harmful effects of lead, since their nervous system is in the formative stage. There is evidence that light lead intoxication affects the ability of children to read and solve mathematical problems. And these abilities suffer the more strongly, the higher the level of lead in the blood of the child. In addition, intoxication with lead salts affects the behavior of children, increasing aggressiveness and antisocial tendencies in it. Even at low doses, lead poisoning causes a decrease in intellectual development, attention and ability to concentrate, a lag in reading, leads to the development of aggressiveness, hyperactivity and other problems in the behavior of the child. These abnormalities in development can be long-term and irreversible. Low birth weight, stunted growth and hearing loss are also the result of lead poisoning.
Conclusion: as a result of the work done, we came to the conclusion that one of the most important environmental problems for the city of Shymkent is lead pollution of the environment and its negative impact on the children's body. Therefore, preventive measures should be taken for people living in high-risk settings.
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