This article describes the enterosorbent used in medicine and pharmacy. In chronic poisoning, the main therapeutic effect is clearly linked with the usage of modern enterosorbent. Getting into the intestine enterosorbents "attract" toxins and remove them from the organizm. In addition, the enterosorbents are able to bind and remove microorganisms and their metabolic products. The most famous enterosorbent widely used at present time is an activated carbon.
Keywords: enterosorbent, sorption, activated carbon, metabolic products, filtration.
The purpose: Investigation on the enterosorbent usage in medical practice. Identify the enterosorbents’ advantages compared with other drugs detox.
Materials and methods: Medications containing enterosorbent, a literature review and analysis of existing data.
Result: The investigation revealed that any enterosorbent is characterized with the following properties:
1. The sorption capacity is the amount of substance that is able to bind to the sorbent unit of its mass.
2. It has the ability to absorb a variety of chemical structures of different sizes and weight (e.g. the ability to absorb whole bacteria and the molecules of alcohol.) In medical practice it is more important to identify the ability to adsorb substances of diverse biological and chemical structures, which may be in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. In other words, it is important for the health of the sorbent, not the selectivity of its sorption capacity, and the ability to absorb everything.
Conclusion: In conclusion, I would like to say that the enterosorbents are needed in the life of a person to cleanse the body from toxic and harmful substances. At present, the relevance of this topic is increasing the day by day and now is known as enterosorbent of four generations. Science is developing regularly, and every day a person strives for the best.
Introduction. In clinical practice, popular drugs with sorption and detoxification properties - enterosorbents are well known and are becoming increasingly. Enterosorbents are drugs of different structures involved in the binding of exogenous and endogenous substances in the digestive tract by adsorption, absorption, ion exchange and complexation.
Sorbents today. Today enterosorbents for the purification of the body can’t be replaced. The usage of such devices as hemodialysis and plasmapheresis began in the late 60s - early 70s of the XX century. The above methods are ones for blood purifying. Not only patients, but also healthy people need the periodic cleansing the body from toxins. Harmful substances are formed in the intestine, such as phenol, catholyte different amino acid, free radicals, like a lock and are excreted. Furthermore, sorbents can influence cholesterol and bile acid. But this is only one group of sorbents, which works with the intestines. There are sorbents that perform a comprehensive cleaning of the entire body.
Special properties of enterosorbents. All drugs have two common basic properties that are strongly influenced by the difference in the indications for the use and their effect:
- Sorption capacity is amount of substance that can absorb its sorbent per unit mass
- the ability to sorb molecules of different size and weight, and the bacterial cells that is more important for enterosorbents than the former ones.
Enterosorbent Mechanisms are divided into 4 groups:
- The enterosorbents absorb exotoxins, xenobiotics, bacteria, bacterial toxins and other toxic products formed in the intestines (phenol , skatole , aromatic amino acids, etc.) , as well as potential allergens. Along with the bacteria immobilization and their toxins necrotic intestinal epithelial elements are important object impact of enterosorption .The presence of these enterosorbents properties in this group allows to use them in the treatment of acute and chronic poisoning, acute and chronic infectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, preventing food allergens penetration into the body, but also binding and excretion of dietary cholesterol, bile acids .
- The second group of mechanisms of enterosorbents action is associated with the contact structure of the influence of drugs on the gastrointestinal tract. This should include changing of the saturation gastrointestinal mucosa by various enzymes, changes in the tissues of the gut that content a number of biologically active substances and their accompanying changes in the functional activity of the gastrointestinal tract. This effect is most significant in the treatment of infectious etiology digestive disorders of chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, accompanied by increased functional activity .
- The third group of mechanisms of enterosorbent action is identified with the ability of drugs to increase significantly an excretion of endotoxin in the gut of lumen in the internal environment of the body. These mechanisms are implemented in the most significant weaknesses of systems of elimination and endotoxin metabolism, which is evident for all acute and chronic inflammatory processes , regardless of the main chamber localization.
- The fourth group of the mechanisms includes strengthening of mediated metabolism and excretion of endotoxin natural organs of detoxification, which is directly related to and dependent on the implementation of the 1st and 3rd groups of the above therapeutic action mechanisms.
Brief characteristics of some enterosorbents. Activated carbon (in tablets carbol in some countries) is of an animal or vegetable origin, which has a high surface activity, absorbs gases, alkaloids, toxins, etc. Available in the form of tablets compressed from finely pulverized the coal is characterized by high surface area (up to 500 -700 m2 g-) .
"White carbon" is a commercial name, which is received a preparation in analogy with black charcoal, the sorption properties of which are well known. In fact, the drug does not contain carbon. The main component in the White Carbon is colloidal silicon dioxide (SiO2) with a particle size of 7-10 nm, which allows the active surface area of approximately 400 m 2 1 g.
Polisorb is a powder having a white or blue tint color. The peculiarity of the drug is in its non- porous structure of silica. If the sorbent diluted with water, the result is a mixture with universal properties. Sorbent Polysorb acts as a drug that displays a variety of toxins , allergens , metabolites of alcohol and other dangerous components. Polisorb can be taken with alcoholic poisoning , food poisoning, diarrhea, hangover, for the prevention of allergy , renal failure, psoriasis, asthma .
Objects impact enterosorbents. The objects of the enterosorption impact are such parts of the intestine, which continue to parasitize bacteria and viruses, so-called necrotic epithelial elements. When it is improved, the provision indicates that the sorbents help with acute and chronic infectious diseases. For all acute diseases metabolic processes are slowed down, and thanks to it sorbents accelerates metabolism and breakdown of endotoxins. Endotoxin removing occurs with natural mechanisms of detoxification.
Application daily life. Mostly in everyday life, people face with food and alcohol poisoning, which can usually be treated at home, without specialists’ help. When alcohol or food poisoning any enterosorbent that is at hand can be used. Food poisoning leads to no stool for 12 hours , and while alcohol intoxication there eliminate the symptoms . It should be remembered that food poisoning is treated to stop diarrhea. But alcohol intoxication can be removed using enterosorbent sorbent. Thus, after alcohol ingestion , to eliminate the withdrawal syndrome can take any medication in a single dose and then for two hours required to empty the bowel . Defecation is necessary because if you do not bring enterosorbent related toxins, it will give them back to the surface , which will lead to the return of unpleasant symptoms . Enterosorbents can be used as an aid to chemical poisoning, drugs and medicines. In this situation the drug binds and poison out of the body.
Conclusion. All produced today enterosorbents must meet certain medical requirements. First of all, they should not be endowed with toxic properties. Besides it is important that they do not injure the mucous membranes, as well as quickly and efficiently absorbed from the intestine. Also, modern enterosorbents should not cause dysbacterioses and have convenient pharmaceutical form.
- "Enterosorption" ed. prof. NA Belyakov - L., 1991. - 336C.
- Belyakov NA, Solomennikov AV Enterosorption. - L., 1990. - 35 pages