Immunoglobulins are special compounds known as antibodies, which are synthesized by the immune system to protect the body against viruses, bacteria and other antigens. Immunoglobulins are contained in the serum (on the surface of lymphocytes), in the fluid tissue and secretions produced by the mucous glands. Humoral immunity is responsible for the protection of liquid medium against foreign penetration. Macrophages as a part of the immune system protect the body at the cellular level. Immunoglobulins are able to "diagnose" foreign microbes, combine with the antigen to form an immune complex, participate in the removal or destruction of immune complexes, and save antibodies in the organism against some infectious diseases for a long time or for the whole life. Scarcity of immunoglobulins leads to immune system disorders or immunodeficiency. As a result, some medications comprising immunoglobulin are administered to patients to strengthen the immune system.
Key words: immune system, antibodies, antigen, immunostimulators, immunomodulators, side effects, therapeutic actions, active ingredients, excipients, natural and synthetic origin
Discussion. Drugs that activate and restore the function of cellular and / or humoralimmunity, are called immunostimulants, also known as immunostimulators. Immunostimulants are used for the primary (congenital) and secondary (acquired) immunodeficiencies. There are several types of immunostimulators such as animal originated immunostimulants, plant originated immunostimulants, synthetic derivatives of imizadola, preparations from thymus, bone marrow, placenta and others. We have compared and identified the effect of natural (plant and animal originated) and synthetic immunostimulants on the body. The main characteristics of the given preparations were included in table # 1, which enabled us to structure their properties.
Analyzing the pharmaceutical properties of the following preparations, we have concluded that natural and synthetic immunostimulantshave their own advantages and disadvantages. All the date are tabulated in table # 2.
It is obvious that the advantages of syntheticimmunostimulants exceed plant originated and animal originated ones.
Conclusion. Immunostimulantsor immunostimulators, are substances (drugs and nutrients) that stimulate the immune system by inducing activation or increasing activity of any of its components as immunoglobulins. Specific immunostimulants provide antigenic specificity in immune response, such as vaccines or any antigen. Non-specific immunostimulants act irrespective of antigenic specificity to augment immune response of other antigen or stimulate components of the immune system without antigenic specificity. According to the obtained results of impact of immunostimulants on body defences, natural and artificial preparations have beneficial effect on the immune system with different intensity. However, there are some points of this research that require follow-up study.