The article is about intercultural communication and the problems of solving. Intercultural communication is important in the process of learning a language. Many of the problems related to culture are international and even global dimension. The components of the communication process can be differentiated in several ways. One of them - define a model through which communication can take place. People communicate using two modalities: verbal and nonverbal. Functional and dynamic approach to the study of language has led to the emergence of new technologies and concepts of learning.
Key words: intercultural, verbal, communication, teaching, model.
The object of my article is to show how can we communicate with other people of different culture and their types, also the problems of their solving. Teacher, addressing a foreign student, refers to a material, a stranger to him. The world in which we live in is becoming more and more closely, it really starts to look like global village - great polilingual and multicultural village. And communication in this planetary village is possible only on the basis of cross-language and cross-cultural understanding and cooperation. The stability and prosperity of the world in the third millennium will depend on the ability of young people to show tolerance and respect other cultural and social characteristics, they will and desire to understand each other and cooperate with each other, to seek and find a solution to the socio-cultural conflicts. Many of the problems related to culture are international and even global dimension. Acute problems of "mass culture", spirituality, and earthliness. At the same time, are gaining influence, dialogue, mutual understanding of different cultures, including the relationship of modern Western culture and traditional cultures of the developing countries in Asia and Latin America. Thus, interest in cultural theory has profound practical roots. All this has stimulated the development of the philosophical problems of culture and led to significant advances in this field of knowledge, down to the question of the creation of a special science of culture - cultural studies.
It is important to stress that almost every one of the social groups - a group, face problems of cultural adaptation. Migrants and refugees arriving in the new socio-cultural environment, people have changed as a result of changing social status of the profession, the loss or gain of power, improvement or deterioration of the material conditions of life, teenagers and senior citizens, young people, called in the army and came to serve on a contract basis, orphaned children, prisoners, members of deviant or delinquent groups, etc. They are all more or less affected by the problems of inculturation in its various versions. So, for migrants it is a problem of initiation to the cultural patterns of the dominant society, so it is important to organize a social worker assimilation (in various forms), the typical patterns of behavior, values and ways of cultural activity. Many people form groups with their unique subculture. Such, for example, soldiers, teenagers, groups of individuals with behavioral problems (prostitutes, drug addicts, vagrants, etc.). A social worker must not only know the specifics of such groups, characteristics subcultures as a special sphere of culture, but in each case to decide whether to help the individual to acquire subcultural standards or adapt this subculture and its carriers into the mainstream culture.
As the world becomes more complicated and culturally pluralistic, growing and important topics related to intercultural communication. Ability to communicate, regardless of cultural barriers affect our lives not only at work or at school, but at home, in the family and in the gaming environment. Can we somehow enhance skills such communication? The components of the communication process can be differentiated in several ways. One of them - define a model through which communication can take place. People communicate using two modalities: verbal and nonverbal. Verbal model includes language with its unique set of phonemes, morphemes, and vocabulary, syntax and grammar, phonology, semantics, and pragmatics-asymptotics. Verbal language - containing these components semantic system, which facilitates the exchange of ideas, thoughts and feelings properties.
Nonverbal model includes all the non-verbal behavior, including facial expressions, gaze and eye contact, voice intonation and paralinguistic clues, interpersonal space, gestures, body posture and pause. It is clear that in other cultures, showed relatively greater importance of non-verbal behavior in comparison with verbal language when sending a message.
Another way to look at the communication process - to describe it in terms of coding and decoding. Coding is the process by which people choose, consciously or unconsciously, a modality and the method by which you can create and send a message to someone. Although, as adults, we do not think about the process all the time, as a child, we had to learn the rules of syntax, grammar, pragmatics and phonology in order to ably encode information. Similarly, we had to learn the rules that determine the messages that are sent to non-verbal way. Man, that encodes and transmits messages in the research literature is often called coding or sender.
Decoding is the process by which a person is receiving signals from the encoder and translates these signals into meaningful messages. Just as "adequate" coding depends on the understanding and use of verbal and nonverbal behavior, "adequate" depends on the decoding of the same rules, so that the messages were interpreted in such a manner in which they are supposed to convey. In the scientific literature, the person who decodes the message, often called decoding or recipient. Of course, communication - this is not a one way street, with one person only encodes and sends the message, and the other - only to decode. Communication - the extremely complex process of encoding and decoding, occurring in quick succession and overlapping so that they occur almost simultaneously. It is this rapid exchange of messages, when a hundred people become alternately senders, receivers, and makes the study of communication is so difficult, but rewarding. Besides the two main models - the verbal language and nonverbal behavior - and the two main processes - coding and decoding - communication has a number of other components.
Signals - these are specific words and actions that are said and produced in communication, that is, a specific verbal language and nonverbal behaviors that are encoded when sending messages. For example, the expression can be a signal that is encoded with a specific message. Other signals can be specific words or phrases, body posture and tone of voice.
Message - this meaning, which is embedded in the signals and extracted from them. This includes knowledge, ideas, concepts, thoughts or emotions that are going to pass encoding, decoding and interpreting. Signals - this is the observed behavior, which does not necessarily have an inner meaning, message - this meaning that we attribute to the cues.
Finally, the channel is called the specific sensory modalities through which transmit signals and recognize the message, such as a picture or sound. The most commonly used communication channels are visual (we see facial expression, body posture, etc.) and auditory (we hear the words, tone of voice, etc.). However, when communications are used, and all other sensations, including touch, smell and taste. Thus, the process of communication can be described as an operation in which the sender encodes the message in the form of a set of signals. These signals are transmitted through multiple channels, open and operating at the destination. The recipient decodes the signals to interpret the message. Once the message interpreted, decoding is encoding, sending back your own message using the same process. In this case, the one who originally encoded message is decoded. It is this complex process of exchange, the changing roles and encoding, decoding, and makes the process of communication.
Culture has a pervasive and profound influence on the processes of verbal and nonverbal encoding and decoding. Culture has a profound effect on verbal language. Each language - a unique system of symbols, which shows that it is culture considers important. Remember certain words may exist in some languages, but not in others, reflecting differences in how cultures symbolically depict the world. Different cultures and languages often use words referents related to the "I" and the others in various ways, for example, English pronouns I and you can be replaced designations role, position and status. Counting system - another example of cultural influences on verbal language. In many languages there are numerals that represent data objects are calculated, and different languages may have different basic systems for the numerical relationships. Culture affects not only the vocabulary of the language, but also its function or pragmatics.
Culture also affects many non-verbal actions. Although cross-cultural studies have shown that facial expressions of anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise are the pan-cultural, we also know that cultures differ in the rules displays of affection which govern the use of these universal expressions. In addition, we know that there are many cultural differences in body language, the look and visual attention, interpersonal space, body postures, as well as voice intonation and speech characteristics. Culture influences the decoding process in several ways. As in the case of cultural decoding rules relating to perception and interpretation of emotions, from an early age we internalize the rules that help us to decipher the cultural code that is embedded in the speech and in all other aspects of the interaction. These rules are formed together with the decoding rules displays of emotion or coding and are a natural part of the development of communication skills.
During intercultural encounters likely is that human behavior does not match our expectations. We often interpret this behavior as encroachments on our value system and ethics. It causes negative emotions confusing our self-concept. These conflicts arise in intercultural communication rights, not only with people but also with other agents of the cultural system (such as public transport, mail, trade and business).
Teaching language and culture on the basis of a system of concepts based on the fact that the culture - a holistic, systemic semiotic phenomenon. And in didactics should assume that culture - an open, self-organizing system. exchange with the environment is the "input" and "output" of the system. "work" of "culture" is a result of its relationship with the tradition and reality. addition, the culture - a dynamic system, which operates on the basis of communication that takes place both inside the system and outside it.
For learning in principle, that in the culture are forward and backward linkages. To become a concept, a meaning that is sent to the student teacher should be accepted, included in the verbal associative network is correlated with basic concepts of culture. During training, fluency is not achieved through a set of words, or even by the knowledge of grammatical patterns, and by the fact that on this basis the student learns the language of another culture, manifested in national concepts. Feature of didactics in the fact that it is based on lingual and cult urological approach, based on the study of national concept ional sphere aims to systematic training of culture and language. The didactic approach involves: 1) training of intra-cultural communication, and 2) the training of intercultural communication. At the heart of the new technical direction lie the concept and conceptual sphere, understood as a teaching unit.
For the process of learning intercultural communication can be represented by: Student- teacher learning. This is the simplest scheme of communication. The teacher, a carrier of culture of the native language, has a certain set of concepts alien culture and appeals to the student - media culture of a foreign language, relying on feedback to the extent that the student learns the proposed material. It is clear that "foreign" teacher connects with "their" to a greater extent than the student, and the purpose of training is to reduce this gap, and ideally - its elimination. Then you can see the steps of training as follows:
1. The traditional presentation of units of "foreign" language. For example, the Russian word for "mother" in the translation of a foreign language. 2. The inclusion of a unit of language in verbal associative network. a) Mother - comfort - heat - weasel - love-woman ... b) to be protected, to feel needed, to have a mother ... c) A good, kind, gentle, wise and beautiful mother ... 3. Presentation of word-concepts in micro: "Mother Nature - the beginning of all beginnings."In aphoristic: "The mother's heart warms better sun", "Loving mother - the soul of the family and adornment of life."4. Direct acquaintance with the word mother. The purpose of this phase - the inclusion of semantic units in the conceptual and emotional sphere, resulting in a foreigner involved in personal attitude to the word mother and hidden comparison with "their". Conceptual and emotional spheres interpenetrate, causing new associations. In a simultaneous move comes two verbal associative network, "own" and "alien" is the birth of the concept.
As a result, the concept of a dictionary that has universal and sketchiness, "acquires" the increments of meaning. "Alien" is gradually becoming "his". In intercultural communication comes secondary language person. The birth of this is due to the mastery of concepts alien cultural world. Conclusion. Intercultural communication in the process of learning a language. Functional and dynamic approach to the study of language has led to the emergence of new technologies and concepts of learning. One of the main- learning based on theoretical principles of intercultural communication. Reliance on culture in language teaching '"found in modern didactics new sound. Speak the language, people do not always understand each other, and the reason is often the difference of cultures. Understandably, the media of the same language can serve people of different cultures or subcultures. They also may not fully understand each other. Communication within the same culture also often reveals a mismatch of concepts. Even more difficult is the case with cross-cultural communication.
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