Politics of modern higher education in Kazakhstan is determined by the practical activities of higher education institutions and their integration with science and industry. To enhance the practical orientation of the educational programs of universities the proportion of professional practice is increasing, as the educational activity plays a crucial role in the development of competitive specialists — teachers of foreign languages.
A key figure in the educational process has always been a teacher — a competent professional and creative person, who is able and aiming at professional self-improvement, has the skills, teaching gift and desire for new and unknown. Competence of the teacher depends on the level of formation of the methodological, general cultural and subject-oriented expertise.
Teacher education is a priority element of the entire educational system, since it determines the efficiency of the system operation as a whole and of each unit separately.
According to the State Program of Educational Development in the Republic of Kazakhstan for the years 2011–2020 and the Concept of lifelong teacher training, working out of the content and technology of the educational process, providing lifelong education for teachers, requires coordination among all levels of teacher education.
As one of the major classical universities of Kazakhstan, Karaganda State University trains highly qualified teachers satisfying modern international standards in education. The activities of the Foreign Languages Department of the University aims at training of bachelors and masters in education who are engaged in teaching foreign languages at schools and other educational institutions.
Taking into account the specifics of teaching foreign languages, it should be known whether there is necessary continuity between the higher and the secondary level of education or there is some gap — this largely depends on the process of training and education of future teachers. To answer this question, one of the prior directions will be the comprehensive approach to preparing schoolchildren for studying at high schools and only the educational process organization, based on the principles of continuity, integrity and regularity can help to prepare graduates of secondary schools and highly qualified specialists of a new type for future career, who are able to apply the ways of converting the accumulated knowledge, capable of rapid retrieval of information for optimal decision making and possess not only a high level of general education or vocational training, but also competitiveness.
To implement the principle of continuity and integrity in the training of future teachers on the basis of new educational standards, improvement of methodical competence and cultivation of scientific — research skills of teachers and students the branch office of the Department of English teaching methods was opened on the base of the Gymnasium № 93, Karaganda. Activity of this branch of the department is an important form of cooperation between the University and the school targeted on the improvement the quality of training, intensification the practical orientation of the educational process and implementation the results of research in educational practice of the school, modernization of pedagogical practice program, as well as ensuring the continuity between the gymnasium and the university, the expansion of opportunities for socialization of students, organization of regular research and experimental work in the gymnasium, and then the subsequent introduction of this research by teachers and students in educational and training process of the Gymnasium. Particular attention is paid to the development of creative personality in the framework of educational process both in the gymnasium and at the university and in the practical training of graduates for future careers along with students' adaptation to industrial conditions.
By continuity we mean a consistent deployment of higher education system of the educational process in dialectical relation with the systematic activity of secondary schools in order to bring up a student as a subject of university education and training. Continuity in training is reflected in:
- the further development of the students’ positive sides, laid during the previous stages of education and training;
- the provision systematic knowledge and further development of the content, forms and methods;
- the advanced education and training of students, which involves the development in the future;
- the advanced use of the content, methods and forms of education, contributing to the improvement of the
Under the terms of the socio-psychological interaction between school and higher education, we understand the situation (environment), where the best combination of pedagogical factors (relationships, means, etc.) is represented in close interaction, which provide quality preparation of students from secondary educational institutions to further studying at universities, regardless of their level of living standards. These terms include:
- the awareness of teachers from secondary educational institutions and university teachers of socialpsychological characteristics of students, on the one hand, along with forms and methods of teaching in the secondary and high school, on the other;
- ensuring the continuity of teaching forms, methods and techniques between secondary and higher educational institutions;
- training of students from secondary educational institutions some techniques and methods of selfeducation and self-monitoring, as well as methods of university training;
- creating in the secondary educational institution the environment of learning close to the university (taking tests, sessions, presentation of term papers).
To ensure that future teachers of foreign languages are able to provide schools of the future with knowledge, foreign language and foreign culture, they must be confident in the knowledge and skills acquired at the university, be mobile and creative personalities, be attached to the treasures of world culture, all previously mentioned characteristics, according to M. Heidegger, are possible only if the teacher, and moreover, the teacher of foreign languages turns to the need of cognition of his deepest essence — to the fact that he is intellectual, that is «comprehending being.» [1; 105] It is «conceptualized thinking requires from us [teachers] not to cling to a one-side of idea, to abandon the habitual mental ruts in which we race farther and farther,» [1; 109], which means that the training of teachers in higher education must go beyond the traditional ways and go on ahead.
Changes in society have led to a rethinking of the educational goals of the school system and put forward new requirements for the professional skills of foreign language teachers. There are several classifications of competencies that should be the possession of the new formation teacher. V.A.Slastenin and A.K.Markov proposed a classification of competencies of pedagogical skills, where V.A.Slastenin attaches fundamental importance to the ability of «transformation» the content of the objective process of education into specific pedagogical objectives, building and setting in motion a logically complete educational system . A.K.Markov, in accordance with this, highlights the professional, social, personal and individual competence, that is, she considers the professional competence of teachers as part of the socio-cultural competence .
T.E.Isayev gives a classification of competences according to the scheme «to know, to do, to be» . According to this classification, we can distinguish the adaptive-civilization, social, social-organizational, communicative, integral-conceptual and professional competence.
In order of importance and rank there are simple and core competencies, the first — are formed on the basis of the knowledge, skills and abilities, easily fixed, manifested in certain activities; the latter — are complex for consideration and measurement, evident in all kinds of teachers’ activities, in all aspects of personality, are reflected in her inner world and the meanings of her activities .
N.V.Kuzmina in the content of professional competence of teachers classifies specially-professional, methodical, social — psychological and auto — psychological competence .
M.V.Semenova under the professional competence of future teachers understands the qualitative characteristics of a teacher’s personality as the subject of a future professional activity, which is expressed in the gnostic, procedural, communicative, personal, creative and reflective components integrated in the experience of practical activities .
K.V.Shaposhnikov professional competence understands as the willingness and ability of a specialist to make effective decisions in the exercise of professional activities, to design and implement these activities in collaboration with the world .
Based on the above mentioned classifications, we can conclude that modern teachers of secondary educational institutions and teachers of universities should be able to solve any problems related to the teaching process. Passing from secondary educational institutions to higher education, students have no experience of studying in the new circumstances. There is a contradiction between the new status of students (former pupils became students) and their preliminary training to study in the new conditions.
The fundamental basis of the resolution for this contradiction is the interaction between secondary and higher educational institutions. In this regard, for implementation of the continual school and higher education, in the gymnasium it is widely introduced the practice of teaching students to conduct research, teaching seminars, «Polylingual education. Conceptual approaches to the problem of organizing polylingual training in the Republic of Kazakhstan «,» Development of critical thinking of secondary school students in the foreign language learning process»; master — classes « Integrating Internet into the classroom», «Technology of scientific research», issue-related pass-fail tests, presentation of student project work, language competitions. In addition, it is created, a mental attitude necessary for the continuation of studies there is the possibility to continue studying in a group consisting of pupils and students. Professors and teaching staff conducts scientific research on a block of initiative topics of the department: «The development of science — the cognitive capacities of pupils and students in continuing education of foreign language», «The current system of foreign language education in the student-oriented paradigm.» Moreover, there is the working out of collaborative research projects for modules: pupil+ student, the department faculty + school teacher, student + the department faculty. In order to implement these formulas it is planned to encourage research work of all participants of English language educational process, to facilitate joint educational activities at the University and Gymnasium, to carry out intensive career guidance to students of Gymnasium, to upgrade the qualification of all participants of English language educational process.
These projects develop pupils’ and students’ ability to write scientific-research papers, because the moral duty of the teacher and the school is to give students the basic knowledge they need in life, in daily work. Of course, the younger generation will not become absolute specialists in a single area. In this case, it would be easy to teach, and there would be no question the teachers ask — «what to teach?» so that it is necessary to the vast majority of students .
In addition to the above mentioned, the smart student, after the conversation with the teacher should feel that he is believed, that the teacher relies on his smartness and is confident in his vast interior capacities. Pupils and students should realize that they are able not only to know something already known and experienced or to create something new, but also that they should train their ability to solve difficult, non-standard tasks.
Improvement the quality of education, the possibility of its successful continuation in subsequent stages, the inevitable self-determination in youth, vocational training — this is an incomplete list of issues that should be solved in the system «School – High School.» The implementation of the idea and principles of continuing education will allow to teach each student in the zone of his/her proximal development in accordance with psycho-physiological characteristics, aptitudes and abilities, the real challenges and opportunities of specific region.
Need to solve the problem of the competitiveness of higher education institutions and graduating professionals, forces specialists to find new forms and areas of pre-university education and vocational training of young people.
The negative effects of comprehensive school reform in recent years, especially updated the issues of preparing students for university entrance. It causes the increased the role of further education in the transition from secondary to higher professional education.
The main tasks of pre-university training of pupils, up to the present moment, was the creation of conditions to meet the needs of students aiming for higher education, the acquisition of knowledge required for admission to higher educational institution. The experience of many universities suggests that the training courses and departments, in the traditional understanding, orient future entrants in entrance exams. However, many students of the preparatory departments, who have passed the exams are not ready to study at university, they have poorly formed skills of self-organization, self-training, working with educational literature, interpersonal communication .
In order to form a holistic educational process in the framework of the continuing education in the system «School – High School», it is created the department of pre-university training, to ensure interaction between secondary and high school on the basis of continuity in teaching those subjects, which are included in the language competitions. The system of pre-university training is targeted on regulation the various organizational forms of work with applicants. This is the way of organization and coordination of curriculum, teaching methods, educational work, which is systematically carried out in secondary schools.
The main functions of pre-university training include:
- compensating function — classes with experienced teachers in small number groups targeted on the elimination of the gaps in the results of compulsory secondary education;
- developing function — the meaning of which is to enable the student with the possibility to develop his/her abilities, to meet the intellectual needs of the individual;
- adapting function — aiming to facilitate the adaptation of students to the educational process of high school, its educational techniques and content of education;
- corrective function — to bring the achieved level of school education in line with the requirement of the university;
- educational function — promotes the formation of students’ individuality, the increase their level of personal development and social
The main organizing principle of the system «School – High School» appears personally oriented approach aimed at the development of the person and the formation of competence as a term for the success of social-professional adaptation, psychological support for a person striving to professional training at the highest level.
The educational process is governed by the curriculum, work programs. Schedule provides for a couple hours of training, which makes it possible to use high school forms of education (lectures, practical, seminars), and thus join the future entrants to studying in higher education.
Today, there is the first experience of co-operation of foreign languages department and teachers of gymnasium № 93 in the working out of scientific and methodological basis of early learning English in schools starting with a grade 1. Department students develop thesis projects that find their practical application in the educational process of schools. One example of joint scientific and methodological work is the testing and implementation of training programs online, «The rules of English punctuation.» This program was presented at the opening of a branch department by a graduate of the department and currently an English teacher S.M.Zorin.
In conclusion, it should be noted that the training, guidance, research, educational and professional oriented activities under the project «School – High School» will contribute to the development of professional competencies of teachers of foreign languages and improve the educational process in the modern school.
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