In paragraph number 4 which is called «Knowledge and professional skills – the key indicators of modern educational system, training and retraining of the staff with the new course «Kazakhstan – 2050», the Leader of the nation in his Appeal to the nation instructs the Government to provide the development of engineering education and modern technical specialties with awarding international certificates starting from 2013. Professional and technical higher education should focus on maximum satisfaction of current and perspective needs of national economics in specialists. It will solve the problem of employment of people. The higher institutions should not be limited by only educational functions. They should create and develop the applied and scientific research units. The universities which have been guaranteed the academic autonomy should not be restricted by perfection of their teaching programs, but should develop actively their scientificresearch actively .
The analysis and study of literature on the given problem have revealed that in the Republic Kazakhstan different aspects of comparative pedagogics, methods of comparative and pedagogical researches, educational policy of the higher education are regarded in various works and researches. Alongside with it the problem of the quality of the educational system of RK, tendencies of its reforming, the issues of globalization and integration, the development of the national model of the higher education are also considered in various scientific works. The detailed and full analysis in carried out in these works. The authors outline their vision of the national model of the education in RK which should take all the best from world experience adding local cultural and educational peculiarities. But in all scientific works the problems and importance of launching of advanced practice and traditions of the western universities into local pedagogical practice have not been solved.
The willingness of RK integration into the world educational community, to acknowledgment of our diplomas and our specialists in the countries of the civilized world make us analyze the US system of higher education, reveal its peculiarities and pay attention to its positive sides. We should not simply fix their positive tendencies in the practical work at the universities of RK. All mentioned above testify the availability of contradiction of the need of RK to the world modern tendencies and real situation of this problem in the country. The given contradiction has determined the theme of my research: what are the tendencies and peculiarities of the development of the higher education of the USA. So, the subject of my research is the perfection of training and upbringing of the future specialists in the modern higher institutions of RK with the help of combined US experience.
Conducting this research I have developed a hypothesis: if we take the combined experience of the USA and RK we will be able to approach the quality and system of the preparation of the specialists to the world standards as the US educational system is the most successful, competitive and productive.
In accordance with the problem, aim, hypothesis and the subject of the research the following tasks have been put:
To develop scientifically proved conclusions and recommendations on usage of positive experience of the USA for higher educational system of RK.
Thus in the conclusion, the perfection of the teaching process and upbringing of future specialists in modern higher education of Republic Kazakhstan using the combined experience of foreign countries should be based on similar priority directions which can be the basis for RK to enter the world educational community on equal.
Comprehensive analysis of the development of the higher education system of the USA allows to make up the following conclusions:
- The most important tendencies of the higher educational system in the USA are: globalization, technologization, computerization, internationalization and through these things to strengthen positions at world educational market. The brilliant developments of all these tendencies make US educational system highly competitive all over the world .
- The major indices of high competition of the US higher education are: in the rating of the best world universities 60 of them are from the USA. In the country there is the largest number of outstanding specialists with the world fame and consequently the outstanding fundamental researches which is also testified by the number of Nobel Prize winners (148 persons). The American system of higher education is perfectly harmonized with demands of industry and large corporations, large and small firms and characterized by high quality and efficiency of multilevel preparation of specialists especially in post diploma preparation that all attracts increasing number of students throughout the world .
The participation at the educational market as independent players changes basically the nature of the higher education of the USA. From now on it becomes entrepreneurship: all links of university structure become self-determined on competition and income .
Thus, it follows that productively and entrepreneurship are the peculiar features of the modern educational system of the USA which lead to the following conclusions:
- decreasing the importance of systematic fundaments;
- search for innovation;
- the organization of teaching process with emphasis on interdisciplines, on serious independent work of the students as the main requirements of the quality;
- the qualitative selection of school-leavers through social colleges and highly professional teachers .
6. The main problems of the higher educational system of RK which restrain its development are:
- low demand of post-graduates after graduating from universities. The closure of specialties not competitive at market is slowly resolved;
- the system of higher education in RK can’t provide outstripping education, can’t prepare specialists with orientation on technological progress and specialists able to change briefly their profession.
- low level of specialists’ preparation for innovative sphere. There can be mentioned such things as: low level of development of innovative infrastructure of science and education, low innovative direction of educational programs, poor financial provision in all specialties especially technical ones. Besides students take weak part in carrying out state scientific and scientific–technical programs linked with innovative activity, the absence of effective connection of education and science with industry and so on.
- there are significant problems in informatization of higher education. Existing state inter-regional channels do not meet requirements of informatization of education, standard juridical basis is poorly developed and there is lack of electronic products in official language, lack of preparation of specialists in informatics and informational technologies in official language.
To perfect the system of higher education in RK it is reasonable:
- to introduce the multilevel preparation of specialists according to the American model.
The introduction of it will make Kazakhstan: competitive in qualitative education that will attract many foreign citizens; – it will integrate such advantages of the American higher education as: diversity of educational institutions – from small humanitarian colleges to large state and private universities including research and corporative universities the analogues of which there are no in Kazakhstan.
Also it is necessary decentralize the managing of higher institutions and to give them academic freedoms, to select highly professional staff, to raise the role of pedagogical , technical and medical colleges, to put responsibility for sustaining advanced researches on the local bodies. Attention should be paid to charity activities stimulated by tax legislation. It gives the opportunity to the talented students from poor families to get education in the most expensive and prestigious universities of the world , to invite foreign teachers and professors whose intellectual and cultural resources will promote the development of higher institutions of Kazakhstan, adherence to traditions and to raising the image of university.
8. Introduction of decentralization of management in Kazakhstani Universities and providing of academic freedoms will allow:
- to abolish single standards, single teaching plans that restrain creative approach, creative initiative and sound competition between universities for qualitative education;
- to raise the responsibility of the universities for retraining pedagogical staff for working on new innovative technologies for utmost informatization and computerization of teaching process, for giving a freeaccessofstudentsandprofessorstoinformational resources, for application and development of distance education, and forming the market of online education of students. The universities should also be responsible for developing finance provision of universities, for developing infrastructures, for raising the image of the university, for developing fundamental and applied researches, for creating new techno parks and techno polices which are to be linking elements between production and education.
- to stimulate innovative activity of universities and its staff on developing more perfect standards, teaching programs and courses according to adequate modern requirements and appliance into teaching process innovative technologies and methods of teaching;
- to continue the work on developing multimedia and electronic textbooks, the use of computer teaching and controlling programs in the teaching process. Also it is necessary to create interdisciplinary courses, and joined programs of teaching and scientific researches with scientific and educational institutions of foreign countries and post-soviet countries. Which provide competition of our post-graduates at the world market .
- Kazakhstan Strategy «Kazakhstan-2050» – New political course of the state»/ Address by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev to the People of Kazakhstan // Kazakhstanskaya Pravda, № 39. – Astana. 2012. – 14 December.
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