Studying of national idea is one of the central problems in the modern social-humanitarian science. Interest to it is caused by an indispensability of self-determination of people, judgements of their seat and a role in historical and cultural process.
The national idea is investigated in the works of political scientists, sociologists, culturologists. It is a subject of researching of philosophy, religion’s study. The great attention is given comprehension of essence of national idea in modern literary criticism. It is caused first of all by that the national idea is served as an significant component of artistic works’ content. It penetrates the writers’ concept of the world and the person, assists deeper comprehension of psychology of heroes, their relationship to reality.
The concept of national idea is considered in the works of such scientists, as Lihachev D.S., Gachev G., Ilyin I.A., Vyunov Ju.A., Sohryakov Ju.I., Bachalova I.B., Fedotova L.L. and others. On the basis of literary works’ analysis they open a role and value of this category in an artistic work.
According to the researchers’ point of view, the national idea «represents the systematized generalization of national consciousness, sense of existence of this or that people». At its level «spiritual communication of the last, present and future generations», which is expressed by means of verbal work is carried out .
The national idea penetrates a content, poetics of artistic works. It causes a genre originality of the literature. In national idea, by L. Fedotova’s opinion, writers express aspirations of people, their self-identification and rushing in the future [2, p. 45]. Its major components are spirituality, patriotism, morals. These concepts give to national idea «cultural and artistic completeness» [3, p. 26]. It acts as an original core of an ideologically-thematic content of works, that abundantly clear is shown in Kazakh literature of XVIII-XIX centuries. Being the integral making of author’s concept, the national idea assists disclosing of outlook and attitude of the writer, its moral and aesthetic ideals.
XVIII-XIX centuries are one of the most important periods in the development of the Kazakh people. The culture of this time, on the one hand, incorporates traditions of the past; on another – in it the all new tendencies connected with public variations are observed.
Kazakh literature of XVIII-XIX centuries is characterized by a variety themes, updating of genre structure. Leaning on traditions of the past, writers comprehend not only historical events, but also the phenomena of the validity in a new fashion. Their works are penetrated by ideas of patriotism, national-liberation movement, struggle for independence, integrity and safety of the state.
The Kazakh literature of XVIII-XIX centuries develops in two basic directions. The first is connected with traditions of oral national work. The second receives reflection in written monuments of culture.
The works of oral national work of XVIII-XIX centuries reflect historical-cultural and literary process of that time and are penetrated by national idea. In them historical events, the social phenomena are comprehended, the inner world of heroes is revealed. The basic genres, developing in XVIII-XIX centuries, become the heroic epos, fairy tales, proverbs, sayings, household ceremonial songs. In them peculiarities of public consciousness are reflected, the essence of national idea, its vision and understanding is revealed. The genre of the historical song receives the widespread, as leading theme of which is the struggle of the Kazakh people for independence.
In works of folklore of XVIII-XIX centuries valour of batyrs, their courage, love to the native land is sung, the steadfastness of Kazakh people in struggle for freedom and independence of the country is described. For example, the songs «Kap kagylgan», «Shandy zhoryk», «Elim-ai!» and others.
The period of XVIII-XIX centuries connected with the work of such well-known akyns and zhyrau as Bukhar, Umbetey, Zhankisi, Tatikara, Aktamberdy, Kotesh, Tleuke Kulekeuly and others. Leading theme of their works is the love to the native land. The akyns and zhyrau, singing of beauty and greatness of the Kazakh steppe, describing historical events, feats of Kazakh batyrs, create bright pictures of social being. In the work of Bukhar, Umbetey, Zhankisi, Tatikara, Aktamberdy, Kotesh, Tleuke Kulekeuly expectations, hopes of people, their aspiration in the future are expressed. In the songsreflections, poems the akyns and zhyrau reflect on an indispensability of strengthening of the state, conservation of independence. They describe liberation struggle of Kazakh people against dzhungarian aggressors. The work of the akyns and zhyrau is penetrated by appeals to unity, valours, courage. The poetry of Bukhar, Umbetey, Zhankisi, Tatikara, Aktamberdy, Kotesh, Tleuke Kulekeul are filled by civil motives, reflections about the past, the present and the future of Kazakh people. They emphasize a role of the separate historic figure in destiny of the country, in strengthening of the state. These themes and problems are the basis of national idea.
Leading role in historical and cultural process of XIX century the work of Makhambet Otemisuly, Suyunbay Aronuly, poets «Zar zaman» Dulat Babataiuly, Shortanbay Kanayuly, Murat Monkeyuly, Abubakir Kerderi Shokahanuly has played. In their works socially-philosophical themes are mentioned. Makhambet Otemisuly, Suyunbay Aronuly, Dulat Babatauly, Shortanbay Kanayuly, Murat Monkeyuly, Abubakir Kerderi Shokhanuly reflect about ethical, cultural wealth of the person, unity of destiny of the person and his people. The work of akyns is penetrated by national idea through prism of it the historical events, the past, the present and the future of the country are comprehended. Poets support conservation of cultural traditions, proclaim an indispensability of the careful attitude to the native land.
The central idea of works of poets «Zar zaman» is the idea of unity of people, interrelation of the state and the person. Leading concept of their work is a concept of the nation («el»). In the poetry «Zar zaman» in fact gives the precise definition of national idea, the essence of idea «Mangilik El».
Great attention Dulat Babataiuly, Shortanbay Kanayuly, Murat Monkeyuly, Abubakir Kerderi Shokhanuly give a problem of alienation and moral memory. According their opinion, coming off the native land, the person loses the connection with people, with his history and culture. The problem of alienation, moral memory assists deeper comprehension of an essence of national idea, features of consciousness of the person and public thinking.
The national idea is realized in the Kazakh literature of XVIII-XIX centuries at a level of a content, a plot, system of images. In the center of attention of oral national works, akyn and zhyrau’s work there are social phenomena, historical events, the person’s inner world, comprehended in a context of a society’s development. In the Kazakh literature of XVIII-XIX centuries civil, patriotic ideas, idea of people’s unity are reflected. The theme of struggle for independence and freedom is received widespread. Civilization, patriotism, spiritual and moral searches, reflections about eternal and universal values act as distinctive features of works of the oral folk art, a heritage of akyns and zhyrau, make an essence of national idea and idea «Mangilik El».
In the Kazakh literature of XVIII-XIX centuries the national idea undergoes the certain evolution.
Complication of concepts about its essence and a role in the life of the separate person and a society as a whole is observed. The national idea acts as an integral part of consciousness of the person, his moral and historical memory.
In the work of poets «Zar zaman» the idea «Mangilik El», revealing on a level of a content and main concepts of their works, is formed.
The reflections are the most widespread genre of the Kazakh literature of XVIII-XIX centuries. The reference to its of poets explains by their aspiration deeply and comprehensively to understand an essence of historical, social processes and the phenomena. This genre assists disclosing of the author’s concept of life and the person laid in the works of the Kazakh literature of XVIII-XIX centuries.
The national idea is shaped under influence of some factors, basic of which are: social variations and the contradictions inherent in a society at each stage of its historical development; social and economic transformations and a political system of the state; laws of historical-cultural process; national interests and socially-psychological features of the nation; comprehension by the person of the participation to destiny of the country, national self-identity.
The national idea is the major component of people’s mentality. It causes the peculiarities of public consciousness and consciousness of the separate person.
The national idea interwines with national feelings. Its formation and evolution is determined by the human perception of the world, his understanding of his unity with the history and culture of the country and the people.
The national idea carries out in the work of akyns and zhyrau of XVIII-XIX centuries some functions. The main of them are, firstly, maintenance of national self-identification of the person, comprehension by the person of the ethnic accessory that is shown in character, psychologies of heroes of artistic works. For example, the poetry of Makhambet Otemisuly, Sherniyaz Zharylgasuly, Shozhe Karzhabayuly, Dulat Babataiuly, Murat Monkeyuly, Shortanbay Kanayuly, Ibyrai Altynsarin. Secondly, the national idea provides continuity of the past, the present and the future, strengthens communications between generations, makes for a uniform picture of historical development of a society, to comprehension of an essence of occuring social changes and their influences on destiny of people. So, in the poems of Makhambet Otemisuly bright pictures of events, developed at that time, are recreated. He passes spirit of people, their aspiration to freedom and independence, faith in the future. The works of Makhambet Otemisuly are penetrated by national idea, which reveals at a level of an inner world of heroes, their outlooks, relationship to reality. In his poems the importance of moral memory, the careful attitude to a heritage of the past, to traditions of people is emphasized.
The Kazakh literature of XIX century keeps the continuity with a cultural heritage of the past. The work of poets of this period is penetrated by ideas of national-liberation movement, struggle for independence, integrity and safety of the state. In the works of Makhambet Otemisuly, Sherniyaz Zharylgasuly, Shozhe Karzhabayuly, Dulat Babataiuly, Murat Monkeyuly, Shortanbay Kanayuly, Ibyrai Altynsarin and others historical events are represented. The poets create pictures of social being, pass spirit of people, their aspiration in the future. In the work of Makhambet Otemisuly, Sherniyaz Zharylgasuly, Shozhe Karzhabayuly, Dulat Babataiuly, Murat Monkeyuly, Shortanbay Kanayuly, Ibyrai Altynsarin sang of liberation struggle of the Kazakh people. They called up for unity, rallying of the nation. On an example of batyr’s images show people’s courage, moral greatness and love to freedom, emphasize connection of destiny of the separate person with destiny of the state.
The work of Makhambet Otemisuly, Sherniyaz Zharylgasuly, Shozhe Karzhabayuly, Dulat Babataiuly, Murat Monkeyuly, Shortanbay Kanayuly, Ibyrai Altynsarin has played a huge role in formation of national consciousness. Their poetry are penetrated by civil motives, reflections about the past, the present and the future of the Kazakh people. In the work they mention moral questions, argue about eternal and universal values, an indispensability of the careful attitude to the native land.
Leading role in development and evolutions of national idea activity of Shokhan Ualikhanov has played. His works assisted formation of public consciousness, self-identity of the person, judgement the human of the importance of a cultural heritage of the past.
The national idea receives a realization in the works of Ibyrai Altynsarin, Abay Kunanbaev. They recreate a truthful picture of the reality, emphasizes the importance of education in formation of the person, progress and strengthening of the state.
Sh.Ualikhanov, I.Altynsarin, A.Kunanbaev’s heritage has defined directions of historical and cultural process of Kazakhstan. Their work has caused ways of the further growth and progress of spiritual culture of the Kazakh people.
In the Kazakh literature of XIX century the relationships of Kazakhstan and Russia are considered. Poets comprehend historical processes and the phenomena of that time, argue about traditions, customs, household way of people, features of religious and ethical views of Kazakhs. They emphasize importance of comprehension by a society and the separate person of the national self-identity.
Thus, historical and cultural and literary process of XVIII-XIX centuries has the complex and controversial character caused by peculiarities of a society’s development. The national idea penetrates a content and poetics of works of the Kazakh writers of this period. Its formation is indissolubly connected with ideas of freedom, independence, a problem of moral memory.
- Bachalova I.B. National idea as senseformed factor in the Chechen prose. Dissertation of Candidate of Philological Sciences. – Makhachkala, 2013. – 165 p. // http: // cheloveknauka.com/natsionalnaya-ideya-kak-smysloobrazuyuschiy-faktor-v-chechenskoyproze
- Fedotova L.L. The concept of Russian national idea in the Russian literature // Rhema. – 2011. – № 2. – P. 44-49.
- Fedorova T.A. The reflection of national idea in A.Varlamov’s novel «Fool» // Actual problems of philological sciences: materials of International Scientific Conferences. – Chita: Young scientist, 2011. – P. 26-28.