Problems of scientific researches management in health services in the present conditions

Analysis of the development of national science system abroad shows that by the beginning of the XXI century leadership in the field of scientific activity was concentrated in Europe, USA and Japan. Today, only Western Europe, excluding the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and Russia produces about 34% of the whole world printed research outputs. Europe generates more than 50% of global research output in physics, chemistry, more than 40% in the field of biomedical research, clinical medicine, mathematics, science on Earth and space [5].

The last three centuries Western science developed by F. Bacon's aphorism: "Knowledge is power", which means that all science served as the basis for the development of society [6]. Accordingly, medical science has evolved and laid a solid foundation of modern clinical medicine for this period.

The problem of Kazakhstani medical science in the period of USSR disintegration was not only in limited financial sources, but also in impossibility to reduce researches on all areas of science because of deficiency of corresponding with material technical facilities and qualified employees. Earlier in the USSR medical science has traditionally been developed within the limits of specialized national research institutes in close association with leading scientific institutions of the Soviet Union executed the head functions in the all areas of medical science. At the same essential value was attached to basic research with their subsequent development in their own Research & Development (R&D) and integration of their cultivation. The achievements of world science and advanced foreign

experience have been used very rarely and in small quantities, and there weren't direct foreign borrowing achievements of science and practice.

The disintegration of the USSR and the state sovereignty of Kazakhstan cause necessary for the formation of the scientific potential on emerging gaps and new priorities; reorientation of scientific researches, carried out previously on the instructions of the central apparatus of the Soviet Union, creation of its own selfcontained system of scientific medical information, examination of inventions, training and certification of scientific personnel, publishing, state registration of scientific research work, etc.

In this regard, the strategic objective of the present stage of scientific development in Kazakhstan was the formation of a dynamic scientific and technological capacity and efficiency of its use, as defined by the Law of RK "On Science". In accordance with the State Program of Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2007-2012, in the last decade, there were conducted scientific researches to assess the functioning of medical research activities in the health care system in the new social economic conditions, were carried out the analysis and forecast of health care personnel policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan for near, average and long-term perspectives and published monographs and guidelines.

Kazakhstani medical science in the present social economic conditions suffered considerable transformation, substantial contribution were brought in and still being brought by home science, but for entrance to the international level the priority areas for further development of medical science in Kazakhstan should be: the introduction of new technologies, reception of new scientific knowledge, identifying national and regional priorities for medical science, mobilization of all resources for the development of medical science system, the effectiveness of using scientific resources.

  1. Methodology

Scientific research work, which was the basis for writing, executed on the basis of the Kazakh National Medical University named after S.D.Asfendiyarov.

The research involved the study of organization and management of medical science in Kazakhstan, the study of the research process, its components, the development process. Also, there was carried out literature review of the research process in the developed world. Theoretical and methodological bases of research were the works of famous scientists, such as Akanov A.A., Khamzina N.K., Slazhneva T.I., Tulebaev K.A., Turdalieva B.S. an d others, where for the first time in the Republic in a comparative aspect were presented the main indicators of personnel of research and medical institutions, showed turnover, the state body of scientists, was made a forecast for the near and long-term perspectives. These material is described more detailed in the dissertation of G.Zh.Tokmurzieva [7]. G.K. Bidatova suggested modern methodological approaches to assessing management of medical science, a methodology for forecasting the human resources of medical science, has established a system of intellectual property assessment, training and certification of highly qualified scientific personnel on priority areas that will contribute to the development of human resources of RK[8]. Since independence, Kazakhstan's scientists have contributed to various aspects of statehood, scientific and technical activities of the Republic [V.Devyatko, M.Kulzhanov, A Akanov Medical Science of Kazakhstan: personnel (state: problems, perspectives). Almaty, 1996]. Researches of foreign scientists: H.Hausen Science and public//interdisciplinary science rev. L, 1994, vol.19, n1, D Wilson New look at performance appraisal for scientists and engineers //Research - technology management. Lancaster, were the basis for writing article.

  1. Comparative analysis of national systems of scientific medical research of health and health care of some countries and Kazakhstan .

In the present conditions the strategic objectives of science management and evaluation of effectiveness of scientific activity can be solved by scientometric methods by quantitative analysis of bibliographic information available in databases such as Science Citation Index (SCI). The scientometric analysis can be applied to assess the level of scientific development, the productivity of individual researchers and the index of value of home periodical publications. Unfortunately, Kazakhstan scientific publications still don't have magazines with impact factor, which is negative factor for science development in general.

Today, Kazakhstan is relevant to the issues of expanding access to international scientific medical research through the known database. Creation of the system of scientific medical research, according to the international principles and standards will allow Kazakhstan to achieve the goals of improving the competitiveness of the country in general and medical science in particular.

The experience of leading countries, in particular the USA, in the field of medical science shows that a dollar invested to R & D, we have $ 9 of GDP growth [15]. Today, the United States strives to achieve leadership in all areas of scientific knowledge, medical science is a priority. It should be noted that problems of scientific activity development are the problems for all countries in the world, and they are implemented in each state differently. Predominantly scientific research in the field of management, organization and planning of research activities are aimed at improving the scientific policy and management research activity. Funding R&D in the field of health care from the federal budget in the USA has risen from 29.9billion dollars in 2008 to 32.7 billion in 2010 and 38.5 billion dollars in 2011, doubling relatively to 2000 [16]. A judicious combination of the interests of the state and private companies are the strategy and tactics of development of science in the USA. [17]. The main directions of the USA programs at the national level:

S In the field of health care is biomedical researches

S For the disabled is researches in the field of development of artificial limbs

S In education is в образовании - влияющих в дальнейшем на качество научного потенциала.

So, peculiarities of science development in the USA are in the followings:

  • Organizations of scientific activities;
  • Structure and quality of scientific personnel;
  • specific character of research;

The organization of science in Japan, is held under the device "take the theoretical ideas and turn them into real objects", and the quality of these items should be high. Organization of science is based on the following: [18]:

  1. The State creates general policy, defines national priorities. There are allocated small finances
  2. 65 - 67% of scientific developments are concentrated in private companies. The main purpose is political courage. 80% of inventions appear here.
  3. Universities bear the rest of charges
  4. Companies know that only implementing powerful research programs and developments, can expect breakthrough in the struggle for markets in the XXI century;
  5. It is extremely important information, and there are organized all kinds of meetings, the annual technology trade fairs, conferences for the exchange of technology, symposiums, international conferences, congresses, etc.
  6. Human resources, their training, bringing them to the international level;

In this way, Japan's model of science is characterized by state development strategy, 70 - 80% of the implementation of the private sector, with using all modern methods of adaptive management, guide to the world market, surviving in a competitive environment.

As we know, the most important indicators, characterizing the scientific resources of individual countries, are:

  • The share of expenditure on research and development (R & D) in GDP
  • R & D expenditure per capita
  • The share of budget allocations for R & D expenditures in the general government budget
  • The number of professionals employed in science and scientific services (including the relative population of the country)
  • The number of international awards (notably Nobel) for outstanding academic achievement
  • Citation Index (the frequency of citations in scientific papers on the work of researchers from the country)
  • The share of high technology products in GDP and industrial production (as defined by the U.S. National Science Foundation, to include knowledge-intensive industries in which the share of R & D expenditure of more than 3.5%, while the proportion of academic staff - not less than 2.5% in the number of high-tech industries include aerospace, instrument, electrical, electronic, etc. In Kazakhstan, the share of R & D expenditure to GDP is less than 1%
  • the share of the country in the world market of high technologies (among the most high-tech are the five most important areas of technological development: information technology, technology, based on the use of new materials, space technology, and nuclear technology).

From the analysis of Table 1 can be seen that the first place on the number of scientific articles belongs to the USA - 31% of the total world volume of publications. In terms of citations after the United States are the United Kingdom, Germany, China and Japan.

On the number of cited articles USA outstrips United Kingdom and Germany more than 4 times.

However, according to the "S & TI, 2010," the proportion of publications of the USA since 1990 invariably decreases due to the growth of publications of Latin American countries,the OECD and the Asian region.

Table 1Indicators to assess the level of scientific activities in selected countries in 2010

Rank

Country

Documents

Citable documents

Citations

Self-Citations

Citations per Document

H index

1

1

United States

140 113

117 507

283 884

155 877

2,03

 

2

2

United

Kingdom

40 594

32 174

85 365

24 676

2,1

525

3

3

Germany

34 351

28 352

65 515

19 308

1,91

435

4

4

China

28 272

26 842

25 185

8 534

0,89

160

5

5

Japan

25 618

23 278

31 134

8 961

1,22

319

6

6

France

22 529

18 362

41 344

9 600

1,84

427

7

7

Italy

21 626

17 984

43 693

10 173

2,02

399

8

8

Canada

20 229

17 576

46 216

9 258

2,28

448

9

9

Spain

17 344

13 863

26 549

6 339

1,53

295

10

41

Russian Federation

1 576

1 499

2 164

232

1,37

113

11

141

Kazakhstan

26

25

19

3

0,73

21

Scimago Lab, Copyright 2007-2012. Data Source: Scopus® Table 2 shows the number of Nobel Prize for 2007.

Table 2. Ranking of countries on the number of Nobel Prize

Counrty

Physycs

Chemistry

Physiology and Medicine

Literature

Economics

1

USA

89

57

97

11

41

2

United kingdom

21

26

29

11

7

3

Germany

23

28

16

8

1

4

France

13

8

9

13

2

5

Spain

4

4

7

7

2

6

USSR and Russia

9

1

1

5

1

7

Italy

3

1

4

6

1

8

Netherlands

8

3

2

0

2

9

Switzerland

2

5

6

2

0

10

Canada

2

5

2

0

3

Over the past 20 years the largest number of Nobel Prize belongs to the U.S. in total - 295 awards, where in medical science and

physiology - 97, which is 33%. The U.S. accounts for 44% of received in the world the Nobel Prizes in Science (295 of 669). United Kingdom takes second place on the number of Nobel Prizes winners . The number of winners in medical science is 29, which is 31% of received in the world the Nobel Prizes in science. However, the total number of Nobel Prizes of country lags behind the U.S. in 3 times.

In ten top countries with the largest number of Nobel Prizes also include Germany, France, Sweden, Russia, Italy, Netherlands, Switzerland and Canada.

The share of R & D expenditure in Italy is about 1%. There are 4 awards in medical science from the total 15. There is less than 1% in Kazakhstan.

Analysis of the data gives an indication that only improving the quality of indicators, characterizing scientific resources of the country, it can enter to the world space and become the capable country.

The modern model of management and organization of scientific and medical activities of the Republic of Kazakhstan is formed at several levels:

nationwide;

interdepartmental; industry;

institutions of science and medical education.

  1. Conclusion

Improving the scientific medical activity remains a key challenge for many countries in the world.

Each country has its own system of medical research activities, which should play a significant role in its economy, politics, competitiveness, and scientific - technical progress. The organization of medical science is very important experience of leading countries that have achieved significant success in the scientific - technical progress. The most significant impact on European science has a three-level model of scientific programs (supranational, national and regional) and the union of science and education. In Japan's model of science combined national strategy and implementation of research projects by the private sector on a competitive basis, and modern management. In American system, the main components of the development of scientific activity are private sector capital and high competition. All of the above states are those with high levels of scientific activity of the highest productivity. The prospects of science are based on a scientific prediction, which should be considered in the development of Kazakhstan's model of scientific medical practice.

Acknowledgments

We thank A. Akanov and Kazakh National Medical University for their assistance in writing the article.

Human Participant Protection

No protocol approval was required because no human participants were involved

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Year: 2012
City: Almaty
Category: Medicine