This article discusses how important the tourism industry is, and how to train professionals in this field to achieve good results.
Today the main criterion of forward development of economy of all countries of the world is its human potential. Tourism is important branch of national economy. In the world there is a need for tourists. Our state - not an exception. As developing country, our state doesn't try to ignore the tourist sector as it has a high tourist potential. For development of tourist potential, we need not only working, but also highly qualified specialists who will contribute to the development of the industry of tourism. Our government took a number of the measures directed to training and retraining. Every year new experts, the new ideas and intelligence, new approaches to a conclusion of our country to the new level of tourism come to labor market.
The industry of tourism is one of the most important branches of economy worldwide. Tourism - the difficult process consisting of science, culture and education. Upon transition to the market relations in the world it became clear that in the sector of tourism there can't be profound changes. Today the industry of tourism is one of the most effective and actively developing sectors of international trade. Tourism in the modern world is favorable to development of any country. Influence of the industry of tourism on development of the industry - the considerable sum of money. Experience of the developed countries assumes development of many industries, such as construction, transport, restaurant and hotel business. Experience of marketing in the developed countries shows that in recent years the world economy became not only the largest, but also most dynamic sector. Since 1988 till present its annual growth was 15.8%, and in other sectors it was 9.8%. Within the last decade consumer service supported the high level of consumer demand, but gradually became profitable to have negative effect on an economic situation. By results of monitoring development of high-energy tourism directs it in a number of the directions defining global economic development of the future [1, p. 98-102]
The tourist business agencies offer tourist services which are in demand thanks to services of tour operators who will organize tourist services from all range of tourist services. For this reason, it is possible to call tourism resource base for tour operators.
The quality of tourist products is estimated through quality of the provided services and the culture of service.
Thus, the range of services, provided in the sphere of tourism, demands universality and requirements to knowledge of the experts working in the field of management at different levels - from the animator to heads of hotels and restaurants. Therefore, at least, in the last decade, tourism needs big training in various areas of development of the tourist industry.
Requirements to professionals of modern tourism are, first of all, a high level of professionalism and competence.
In one case it is the highly qualified specialist, and in another - the expert with good organizing abilities. And always in the list of primary requirements it is recommended to be ready to decision-making, independence, initiative, business, creative thinking and reasonable risk.
At the same time the specialist in tourism always has to be the expert knowing the business and the professional; to have skills of strategic thinking; to constantly broaden the horizons; high morale; Be absolutely loyal. Besides, there have to be profound knowledge and skills in excursions and technicians; psychology, pedagogics and ability to seize oratorical skills and also has to possess an intuition, that is ability of comprehension of the truth by its direct discretion without justification by means of proofs. [2, p. 43-47]
Tourism in Kazakhstan develops with confidence. But, eventually, civilizations are necessary worthy experts. In our country there are a lot of educational institutions for the tourist sector and advanced training courses. But whether the education level of these educational institutions conforms to requirements of the international tourist industry? If to compare the Kazakhstan and European educational models in tourism, then advantage of the European models of vocational training to the industry of tourism consists that the main part of educational process is devoted to training at the industrial enterprises, a practical training; formation of readiness of students for customer service, educational institutions are closely connected with production, the mobility actively develops. In Europe there are many hotels and the hotels offering tourist and hotel training. That is students will be able to live and gain practical skills in the situation which is brought closer to reality there. This experience is favorable, the fact that it is the indisputable proof of its transition to the Kazakhstan model of training.
The American experience of training is of particular importance when on the basis of educational institutions specialized departments which together with the enterprises of the industry of tourism constantly gain requirements of labor market are created, employ youth on specialties and attract students. One more great advantage in the United States are close relations with the state educational organizations; deep studying of general-theoretical knowledge in the field of management; significant amount of advanced training courses and retraining. Analyzing the Kazakhstan and foreign experience of training, we can offer approach to modernization of a domestic system of training for tourism industry which main directions are:
creation of a system of monitoring of educational services in this sphere of labor market;
Strengthening of integration of educational institutions with the industrial enterprises;
advanced training courses and retraining, especially for those who have primary and secondary professional education;
Modernization of a system of retraining of faculties by creation of uniform training center on the basis of the leading higher education institutions of the industry of tourism. [3, p.127]
The mechanism of vocational education for the industry of tourism of Kazakhstan has three education levels:
The highest level - institutional and administrative. Average level of management and technology. Initial or lower level (technical and executive).
On the highest (institutional and administrative) levels managers who define the purposes, strategy, tactics of the industry, define private enterprise (the tour manager, the hotel manager, the marketing manager in tourism, etc.). Deep training of specialists at this level is usually carried out in higher educational institutions.
It is directed to training of a professional, administrative and technological profile for the tourist industry of the average size. Treat features of the administrative and technological industries the personnel providing the technological sequence of services, regulating interaction with other technological divisions (the travel agent, the reservation manager). Training of specialists of the average level in Kazakhstan is provided as in the higher education system, the releasing bachelors of economy, and in the specialized educational institutions giving secondary education
Now at us in the country work as well the specialized colleges realizing training of specialists of the average level for branch of tourism. However in practice of that knowledge which is possessed by graduates of data of colleges often it isn't enough to start work in tourist firms, hotels, restaurants, etc. [4, p.23-28]
And last simple or low-level (technological and executive) carries out training of the personnel which are carrying out specific objectives and satisfying personal needs of tourists or carrying out the activity. Training of such personnel is provided by many professionals - cooks, sports instructors, various centers of training of waiters, schools and courses.
In recent years in Kazakhstan the riding and wild tourism (Mount Hantengri and Zailiysky Ala Tau) actively work what experience of development of tourism testifies to. Treat the main barriers: service prices, including country air tickets, low level of service and many other things. The quantity of other types of tourism significantly isn't developed. Various projects for overcoming this trend in the sphere of tourism aimed at all-round development of internal tourism and significant increase in level of the industry are developed.
Many experts attracted many foreign tourists and locals, but many restrictions interfere with development of the industry of the country. In the Ministry of the industry and new technologies the committee of the industry of tourism which regularly discusses issues of development of tourism is created. For overcoming obstacles in the country Council for tourism at the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan resumed the work. Members of this organization consider that development of this industry is difficult process which demands considerable expenses. Now the government develops cluster zones.
The first cluster center includes sights of Astana and its vicinities: Burabai, Korgalzhyn, Karkaralinsk, Zerend, Kokshetau and Bayanaul are focused on city and natural tourism. The zone of ecological tourism is located in the East Kazakhstan region where development of Katon-Karagaysky and West Altai Almaty and Almaty region is planned provide development of alpine skiing and city tourism. Creation of cultural tourism in the territory of the Southern Kazakhstan, Kyzylorda and Jambyl regions is planned. The western Kazakhstan is a beach tourism about Kenderli and the center of adventure tourism.
Many known international consulting and research companies attentively studied and criticized the Kazakhstan projects. The high prices of tourist products, poor quality of services, low competitiveness of domestic goods, low level of awareness on our country, low infrastructure and many others are the main reasons.
Due to the changes in world economy which won't undermine some changes in Kazakhstan, further development of the existing forms of internal tourism directed to service of small groups of the population it will be continued. Development and improvement of all types of destinations in Kazakhstan is improbable.
The concept of development of the tourist industry in the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2020 is intended for implementation of large tourist programs and the subsequent management of industrial facilities and tourist resources. There is a big need for experts in the field of tourism, especially in managers. In this regard it is offered to consider the idea of cooperation with Nazarbayev University. Besides, in 2015 recommendations about introduction of a quality management system and internal control systems, including tourist trainings and training courses for tour operators and managing directors of inhabited objects with participation of Austria were made. During the visit of the Head of state to the Republic of Austria WIFI INTERNATIONAL signed the Memorandum of understanding. For providing information on tourist flows it is offered to enter the pilot "visiting centers" in Astana and Almaty [5, p.18-22].
List of references:
- Polevaya M.V. The analysis of the current state of training for the tourism industry \under the editorship of M.V. Polevaya. - Moscow: 2010. - 98-102p.
- Polevaya M.V. Qualitative personnel - not luxury. Problems of training of specialists for the capital industry of tourism \under the editorship of M.V. Polevaya. - 43-47p.
- Polevaya M.V. Features of training for the tourism industry: domestic and foreign experience: the monograph \under the editorship of M.V. Polevaya. 2009. 127 p.
- Nikitinsky E.S. The strategy of preparation of tourist shots in the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2030 \\the World of travel. - 2015. No. 2(5). - P.23-28.
- Nikitinsky E.S. Tourism in Kazakhstan - priority branch of economy of the country \under the editorship of E.S. Nikitinsky. - Almaty: 2016. - 18-22p.