This article examines the analysis of the current state, problems and prospect of development of health tourism in Kazakhstan.
Today tourism development, in particular medical and health tourism, becomes a priority national objective which first of all concerns life support of activity of citizens and is aimed at restoration and development of its physical and spiritual powers and health. On the one hand, medical and health tourism contributes significantly to stable development of society, and with another - is one of constantly increasing sources of receiving income for the country . Medical and health tourism internationally is one of the most actively developing types of tourism. So, according to the forecast of World Health Organization (WHO), by 2022 improving tourism together with the field of health care will be among the most priority directions of development of national economies.
In each certain country medical and health tourism developed taking into account the specific natural medical resources which are available there. Today it is accepted to allocate climatic, mud and balneological resort resources, at the same time resort areas can have one or at once several natural medical resources. Depending on medicinal properties of natural resources resorts can specialize on a certain profile (musculoskeletal, cardiological, etc.). In the republic of kazakhstan, unfortunately, there is no special law regulating sanatorium activity, there is only a Code of the republic of kazakhstan of September 18, 2009 No. 193-IV "About health of the people and a health care system" (with changes and additions as of 28.12.2018) and the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan of June 13, 2001 No. 211-II "About tourist activity in the Republic of Kazakhstan" (with changes and additions as of 24.05.2018) .
In our country resorts are located far apart, and everyone forms the certain resort area, for example: Alma-Arasan, Bayanaul, Pine-forest, Kenderla, Saryagash, Tabagang, Chimbulak, etc. Each of these resort areas has unique medical resources (medical peloida (dirt), rapovy water, drinking mineral waters and for external application, etc.) . Today the health resort of Kazakhstan began the development and transformation from the sanatorium system of the USSR for this reason its flowing situation still it is in many respects formed by the approaches and methods formed in a prereform stage. These approaches and methods contradict the principles of market economy and are a source of many modern problems of management of the industry.
Medical and health tourism dynamically develops in such countries as Israel, Hungary, Romania, the Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Poland, Slovakia, Italy, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, India, Singapore, Tunisia, Thailand, Turkey, etc. Statistically in the countries of Europe there are about 3 thousand resorts. Thanks to the favorable climatic resources in the countries of Southern Europe (Greece, Montenegro, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Malta, Serbia, Albania, Croatia, etc.) resorts which are near the sea develop generally. These countries use the Western European model of the organization of medical and health tourism which main goal is generation of profit.
In Kazakhstan the priority purpose in development of the sanatorium sphere is not the economic component, but the social party. Formation and modernization of activity of the market of sanatorium services of Kazakhstan are one of the most topical issues for a research and assessment. As our first President Nursultan Abishevich defined: "The future of the country in many respects depends on health of our citizens, on that, how fruitfully they will be able to work what they will leave behind posterity …" Proceeding from the words of the President, physical and moral health of the people is marked out as one of paramount priorities of the Message of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nazarbayev N.A. to the people of Kazakhstan "Nurla zhol-a way to the future" . The main thing for the state is health of his citizens and his wellbeing.
The most part of sanatorium institutions of the Republic of Kazakhstan have broad orientation on treatment of various diseases. In the Almaty and Akmola regions there are largest sanatorium institutions of Kazakhstan.
Unlike the highly specialized Western European sanatorium organizations, resorts of our country have distinctive feature - orientation on treatment of a wide range of diseases.
Let's consider shortcomings of the Kazakhstan model of the organization of sanatorium activity:
- - low level of the accompanying services;
- - ignoring of attention to an animation and entertaining part in structure of a sanatorium tourist's product;
- - falling of interest of the state in problems of sanatorium area;
- - growth of depreciation medical and material and technical resources;
- - the high cost of a sanatorium tourist's product in relation to foreign and even European.
Because of an economic crisis in Kazakhstan the solvency of the population significantly decreased that led to decrease in a financial condition of the sanatorium organizations .
Let's address statistics. In a section of areas in 2016 in the Republic of Kazakhstan the most large number of the sanatorium organizations is located in the Karaganda region - 16.9% and Southern Kazakhstan (11.7%), Almaty - 10.8% that generally makes 38.9% of all sanatorium organizations of Kazakhstan. It is caused, first of all, by the following factors:
- - demand of the population it is concrete in these services
- - rich natural territories of areas
- - picturesque mountain landscape (Almaty region)
- - recognizable image of each area .
Follows, also to note that the greatest number of the sanatorium organizations is located in the Jambyl region - 10.1% and East Kazakhstan - 8.2%.
By quantity of okazaniye of sanatorium services are considered as the poorest Pavlodar - 5%, Atyrau and Kostanay - on 4%; Akmoklinsky, North Kazakhstan, West Kazakhstan - on 3%, Kyzylorkdinskaya - 2% as there is the smallest number of sanatorium institutions.
The last place by the number of the sanatorium organizations is taken by Mangystau Region, only 1% of sanatorium institutions is located there.
It is necessary to make the assumption that the smallest number of sanatorium institutions of the republic is caused, the fact that these areas have less attractive natural resources and have no high image, in comparison with other areas.
In 2016 it was registered that the greatest number of visitors was served in sanatorium institutions of Almaty region - 23.6% and the Southern Kazakhstan area - 17.2%, the Karaganda region - 15.2%. Finally it makes about 50% of the served visitors.
Sanatorium institutions of the Mangystau, North Kazakhstan and Kyzylorda regions were visited by the smallest number of visitors in 2016 and was only 0.9% .
Because some sanatorium institutions do not sustain the competition in the tourist market, from 2007 for 2015 the number of the sanatorium organizations in the Republic of Kazakhstan decreased by 2.83% .
Today the condition of the sanatorium sphere develops not rather dynamically. Some sanatorium organizations, focus attention generally on rendering the general service, but pay attention minimum to the medical party of the activity. Other regions which have rich natural various therapeutic muds rare quality of mineral waters, gases, salt caves, etc. much more concede on the level of service. From this the task - need to counterbalance these provisions and to be adjusted on a combination of natural resource wealth, extensive practical experience and the high European standard of service acts. All this is necessary in order that tourists could not only morally and spiritually to be restored, but also to take improving courses and to recover [7, p. 221].
The following not less current problem is pollution of sanatorium resources. Pollution of mineral and medical sources results from activity of close located agricultural institutions, emissions of various industrial and utility companies (The Jambyl, East Kazakhstan and Southern Kazakhstan regions). The current situation in sanatorium institutions demands adoption of urgent state programs on their rehabilitation and further development.
One more problem of slowing down of development of medical and recreational tourism in Kazakhstan is lack of information of citizens on local sanatorium services. On today's in each area of Kazakhstan sanatorium institutions which render various recreational services on a natural basis actively function. It is possible to make the assumption that Kazakhstan citizens are simply not informed on domestic resorts and clinics, and in this regard choose refuse to be treated in foreign sanatoria and resorts or just at worst for permits to rest. In the second case for such people the foreign permit is unreal because of impossibility to pay it, and they just did not hear about the Kazakhstan resorts, or heard only negative information. Productive development of sanatorium matter in our country is indisputable will have beneficial effect on the state of health of citizens of Kazakhstan, and will also make the contribution in prevention of incidence and disability. Will give an impetus for development of sanatorium infrastructure, a guarantee of economic stability and profitability of all medical and recreational complex in the international market. There is a basis to make the conclusion that Kazakhstan has all prerequisites and is the perspective place for development of medical and recreational tourism.
Paramount problem of development of the Kazakhstan regions which have special natural, climatic and medical resources is development of new offers of quality medical and recreational services on the basis of creation lechebno - the recreational and tourist infrastructures corresponding to modern achievements of medicine and considering tourist products on which there is a bigger consumer demand, on the one hand, for improvement, and on the other hand, on obtaining the maximum number of leisure entertainments and impressions.
The national economy of our country needs formation of the competitive relations, their strengthening at the level of regions and enterprise structures. It becomes one of the main tasks of economy of Kazakhstan recently. At the same time became obvious that the same methodical receptions are not suitable for all types of the organizations. Each of types of enterprise structures demands development of unique methodical methods of support and development of competitiveness which would consider their features. Today it is obvious that only development of competitiveness of regional economy can guarantee sustained economic growth of all national economy in the conditions of toughening of the competition in the world markets [8, p. 387]. Sanatorium the sphere is a specific form of business in tourist business.
In the market of tourist services the most part of the sanatorium organizations of Kazakhstan face a problem of sale of sanatorium services. Now many consumers are informed on high quality of the western recreational services and have a set of opportunities and alternatives in the choice. Therefore a basis of financial stability is effective - successful marketing policy and also competitiveness of institutions of the sanatorium sphere.
Having summed up the result on all above-mentioned, it is possible to draw a conclusion that it is necessary for the enterprises of this sphere for development of the sanatorium market of Kazakhstan:
- - to participate in the annual international exhibitions and fairs held in Kazakhstan and abroad for the purpose of customer acquisition and formation of the international image of the country;
- - to develop and establish the legislative base regulating activity of the sanatorium organizations and also support of this sphere during an economic crisis (decrease in tax payments);
- - to correct displays of statistical data on the sanatorium sphere for the purpose of strengthening and increase in efficiency of the conducted scientific research in the sanatorium sphere.
By developing the spa business, we can make a huge contribution to the economic market of Kazakhstan.
Kazakhstan has enormous resources for health tourism, which (with the support of specialists and appropriate financing) can become an effective in all respects segment of the domestic tourism industry.
Medical tourism is a promising and demanded direction of tourism, especially among the middle and older age groups of citizens. And in Kazakhstan there are all conditions and opportunities for the development of health tourism, as one of the areas of domestic tourism.
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