Ethnic tourism in Kazakhstan

This article examines the analysis of the current state and prospect of development of ethnic tourism in Kazakhstan.

The Kazakh nation has passed a long path of formation process, participated by numerous tribes and nations, it holds prominent place in the history of Eurasia and belongs to one of the most ancient ethnos. It is the successor of the cultural heritage of all nations, which participated in its formation, therefore the Kazakh nation, is one of the richest nations within cultural terms. Up to the ХХ century Kazakh culture remained nomadic; nevertheless, for many thousands of years its evolution pathway was as complicated and interesting, as the culture of other nations. Nomadic Kazakhs worked out their own mode of thought and social organization, which represents synthesis of Western and Eastern cognitive forms. This fusion resulted in ultimate development of traditions, customs and ceremonies [1].

Today, the state is actively working on improvement of a wide range of the conditions that are necessary for improvement of quality level of providing tourist services. However, rates of development of the cultural, ethnic and ecological tourism in Kazakhstan, which is one of priority and high-potential branches of this sphere, remain at rather low level.

At the same time, it is necessary to clearly identify the fact that without effective work in this direction it is impossible to build a large-scale and popular cultural and tourist complex of our country.

Ecological and cultural tourism in the modern world is increasingly occupying its vast niche in the entertainment and tourism industry. And we, being a country with an attractive potential in this area, should not allow ourselves to forget about such an important issue.

Today, in the conditions of the world competition practically in all spheres of life, it is impossible not to take into account even the most seemingly insignificant components. Every year inflow of the tourists interested in excursion and forwarding campaigns and trips around places of world historical and cultural and ethno-national heritage grows. Kazakhstan can easily attract this stream to itself, if Kazakhstan provides all necessary conditions for this purpose. It will give a powerful impulse to growth of that sector of economy, whichis based on the tourist sphere, services sector, scientific and educational and research activities.

In this light, it is expedient to develop fundamentally new, innovative approaches to the formation of a healthy tourist climate in the country, advertising and marketing and information and presentation lighting, as well as the development of infrastructure and comfortable arrangement of tourist, historical and natural attractions, which our country is extremely rich with.

The concept of development of the tourist industry, developed in early 2013, says that in order to achieve the national purposes of diversification of economy and increase in welfare and quality of life of the population of the Kazakhstan, the industry of tourism of the Kazakhstan has to develop, in certain, tourist clusters with competitive tourist business, in which the professional workers of tourism offer attractive tourist products in the internal and international markets of tourism are engaged. Development in this direction has to promote powerful and stable growth in incomes from tourist activity for all involved interested parties - the states, business and workers [2].

Now intensive work is under way to develop a concept of the cultural policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan, which assumes the creation of cultural and tourist clusters as one of the system-forming factors. The very concept of a cluster makes it possible to focus on improving the cultural-cognitive, educational and image functions, the economic efficiency of this sphere. The prospects opened by this cluster approach allow us to concentrate on some, clearly defined parametric indicators, without dispersing forces and resources for abstract needs. The concept of development of the tourism industry until 2020 identified five tourist clusters: Astana, Almaty, East Kazakhstan, South Kazakhstan and Western Kazakhstan, which, in which, among other, formation of the ecological, cultural, and ethnic directions is provided.

North Kazakhstan, which includes the country's capital - Astana, attracts tourists from different countries, not only for business trips but also for the tourist preferences. Astana intends to become one of the best cities in the world. Even now the capital of Kazakhstan is called the city of the XXI century. Here, in the open-air museum, in the ethno-memorial complex "Map of Kazakhstan" Atameken ", can visualize the entire territory of Kazakhstan with attractions, where each object is reproduced in miniature. Also an important point in the study of history of the region is visiting the archaeological site of ancient settlement Buzuk near Astana, which eventually will become an integral part of the capital.

South Kazakhstan - the richest in attractions from all over Kazakhstan. Almaty is called the southern or the cultural capital of the country which used to be so officially until 1997. Nature has blessed southeastern Kazakhstan with enormous wealth. Mountains of the Western Tien Shan and the Trans-Ili Alatau are probably the most attractive for tourism in the area.The most visited sites of ethnic tourism in the region of South Kazakhstan are: Gallery of petroglyphs Tamgaly, Saki mounds, the navel of the Earth - Ungurtas near Almaty, Otrar, ancient city of Turkestan and the sacred mountain Kazygurt in South Kazakhstan.

The vast region of Western Kazakhstan has great potential for ethnic tourism. Ethnic tourism is highly developed in the Mangistau region. This place has preserved underground mosques, cemeteries and burial places of 362 saints, among which a special position in the Muslim world belongs to Sufi Becket-Ata [3, p. 169].

A clear-cut aspect of their elaboration is the wide- format approach to creating a more complete topography of the historical and cultural landscape and complexes that represent the diversity and uniqueness of the culture of Kazakhstan, attractive for cognitive, ecological domestic and foreign tourism.

The purpose of creating a tourist cluster is to increase the competitiveness of the territory in the tourist market due to the synergetic effect, including: improving the efficiency of enterprises and organizations entering the cluster and stimulating innovation and developing new tourist destinations. [4]

Cultural leisure, like all other types of entertainment and recreation, acquires new functions, expands and rationalizes. A special role in this process is played by the creation of leisure and recreation centers that meet international standards, ecological and ethno-parks, various kinds of cultural, natural and historical reserves. In a complex, all this is the basis for the development of tourist clusters, one of which includes the unique mountain range Ulytau, the legendary ancestral home of the Kazakh people.

From the point of view of ethno-cultural and ecological tourism, Ulytau, the cradle of our nation, is of great interest. The majestic barrows, necropolises, mausoleums of Begazy-Dandybaev culture, rock paintings, petroglyphs, mines, metallurgical furnaces in which copper, tin, silver, gold and other ancient monuments were melted, found and investigated by scientists, show that Ulytau was the center of the Sary- arch and the whole steppe since ancient times.

It is impossible to study the history of the Kazakh people, bypassing the crucial role of this ancient stake of the khans of the Central Asian steppes. Here Juchi raised his banners - the son of Genghis Khan himself, hence the beginning of the eastern conquest campaigns of Batu. Here are buried such famous sons of the steppes as Alash Khan and the once all-powerful lords of the Golden Horde, Tokhtamysh and Emir Yedige. The Ulytau Mountains were not ignored by one of the greatest generals of the Middle Ages - the founder of the empire of the Timurids, Tamerlan.

The monuments, which Ulytau keeps in itself, date back to the Paleolithic and Neolithic epochs. On the territory of this district there are about 636 monuments, 282 of which are included in the historical and cultural map of the fund of the museum "Ulytau."

Tourism in this area can acquire a very wide scale, thanks to its ancient historical and cultural heritage and, eventually, to grow into one of the world centers of ethnic and cultural travel.

A characteristic feature that distinguishes Ulytau from similar historical reserves is its uniqueness in terms of the number of artifacts of the ancient culture of the nomads of Central Asia, the relics of nomadic tribes that became the ancestors of the modern peoples of our region.

Proceeding from this, it becomes clear that it is necessary to attract additional resources, forces and means, to develop this monumental historical and cultural complex, to create its positive image, attract attention of domestic and foreign tourists and investors engaged in charity, science and culture.

The natural beauty and historical significance of Ulytau make it a tempting and promising center of cultural and educational activity, on the basis of which it seems expedient to develop patriotic education of our youth, instilling in it respect for its origins, honoring the deep roots and rich history of the Kazakh people. Ulytau can become an integral tool for the formation and maintenance of national identity and interethnic unity, which is now the most important factor in the sustainable development of our country. The importance of this site and its potential cannot beoverestimated. Our young country, over the past 26 years, has been able to successfully confront these ideological challenges and the trends of cultural selfdestruction. In order to continue keeping our identity, moral values and not be subjected to destructive tendencies of social decay, we need even greater unity around our own sources and ideals. The foundation of this unity should be our historical, cultural, spiritual and moral heritage, traditions and customs, and everything connected with it. An important role is played by our rich intangible cultural heritage left to us by our ancestors, carefully preserved by our fathers and grandfathers and passed on to our children and grandchildren. We must do everything possible to ensure that this process will never be interrupted, and will absorb only the best, useful, kind and beautiful from the world culture.

For this purpose, the concept of cultural policy, which is being developed at the moment, offers many different variations on saving our spiritual capital, both material and moral, geographic and historical, ethnic and natural. The head of state, during a recent trip to the Zhezkazgan region, visited the historical center of the Kazakh people and in his interview noted that he considers it possible to turn the cradle of the Kazakh ethnos Ulytau into a region attractive to tourists, calling it a sacred land. [2]

Ulytau ethno-cultural complex has every chance to become a major focus of cultural and educational, historical, geographical, ethnic and ecological tourism, to become an inexhaustible source of consolidation of our multinational society. It is only necessary to make efforts to formulate its international status in this sphere, to create a positive image, to attract public and tourist interest.

The concept of cultural policy takes into account all these factors, gives them a clearly defined legal basis, as well as a new, traditional and, at the same time, innovative character. Head of State, putting forward the national idea "Mangilik El", calls us to consolidate the Kazakh people with their rich cultural heritage and creative potential. Without this, it is not possible to build a competitive highly developed state. In order to achieve such a high goal, we must be united in our moral and ethical and spiritual and moral values, to know and honor our roots, customs and traditions. In the modern post-industrial world, in the age of information technology, in the era of globalization, it becomes more and more difficult. Nevertheless, we possess a titanic stock of the intangible cultural heritage, a rich language, family and social values that allow us to be sure of the preservation of our national identity and our future [5].

Kazakhstan is an amazing country, that is rich with its natural landscapes, bright colors, unique traditions. The development of tourism in the country is gaining momentum, the situation in this segment of the economy is improving day by day, the interest of both foreign and domestic tourists in tourist activities in the country is growing [6, р.15]. Ethnic tourism - is one of the directions of cultural and educational tourism, which is now tempting for many countries. World practice proves that this kind of tourism is able to satisfy a number of spiritual needs of a person. The most important in the organization of ethnic tourism is to familiarize participants with the traditions and culture of various ethnic groups [7, р. 336].


List of used literature:

  1. Official site of Central Asia. - Access mode: http:/ /
  2. The concept of development of tourist branch of the Kazakhstan until 2020. - Access mode: http://
  3. Andrianov B.V. Ethnic history and economic and cultural development of ancient and medieval peoples of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. // Problems of ethnogenesis and ethnic history of the peoples of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Release III. - M., 2007. - 169 p.
  4. News portal, information article of 25.08.2014. - Access mode:
  5. Message to the people of Kazakhstan from January 17, 2014 "Kazakhstan way -2050: common goal, common interests, common future". - Access mode: http:// respubliki.html
  6. Ibrayev K. Kazakhstan is almost unknown in the world as the tourist direction//Panorama - 2004. №. 18. - 15 p.
  7. Erdavletov S. R. Tourism geography: history, theory, methods, practice. - Almaty, 2000. - 336 p.
Year: 2018
City: Karaganda
Category: Economy