This article is devoted to the analysis of modern electronic payment systems. The study analyzes the specifics of different methods of electronic payments, identifies shortcomings and opportunities of modernization of electronic payment systems.
In today's world monetary relations become an integral part of society. The most typical such relationship in a market economy, where the calculation for the rendered services, products, etc. Such calculations can take both cash and cashless form. The form of cash payments is typical for countries with more backward economies. In the more developed countries, the transition to non - cash was evident because of a number of advantages. Many countries have both forms of cash payments [1, p.35]. Their number may vary depending on the development in the country of science, technology, education, social sphere, etc.if we consider the form of payments in terms of advantages and disadvantages, the non-cash form is more advantageous in terms of costs, speed and other costs than cash. Non-cash payments are payments (payments) made without the use of cash, through the transfer of funds to accounts with credit institutions and offsets of mutual claims. Non-cash payments are of great economic importance in accelerating the turnover of funds, reducing the cash needed for circulation, reducing the costs of circulation; organization of cash payments using non-cash money is much preferable to payments in cash. The widespread use of non-cash payments is facilitated by an extensive network of banks, as well as the state's interest in their development, both for the above reason and for the purpose of studying and regulating macroeconomic processes. An important area of customer service of banks using the latest electronic technology is to provide them with electronic services in stores. In interbank electronic money transfer systems, funds are transferred from the buyer's account to the seller's account at the time of purchase or in some cases with deferred payment at the request of the client. Most of the operations are carried out with the help of plastic cards, which came out in the first place in the organization of the payment turnover of highly developed countries, gradually displacing checks and checkbooks. In recent years, work is underway to introduce multi-purpose cards that can be used as credit, payment, check guarantee cards [2, p.45].
The use of electronic payment systems non-cash form of payment services has a number of advantages for the client:
- speed of operations. Currently, the speed of one operation is 15-30 seconds;
- reduction of fees for Bank services. Transactions carried out with the help of electronic payment systems are much cheaper for the Bank than similar transactions with cash or other paper payment documents;
- faster transfer of funds to the seller's account compared to other methods of payment, as this operation is carried out automatically at the time of purchase;
- high speed of information processing and immediate revenue collection;
- reduction of paper documents and handling costs;
- payment guarantee and reliable protection against unauthorized access to the customer's account;
- the ability to purchase goods without having cash.
These advantages provided rapid development of this sphere of electronic banking services to the population. Now businessmen consider that installation of the terminal is profitable if it provides Commission of operation within 10 seconds. Banks, in turn, stimulate the development of comprehensive relations with trade organizations that would increase their interest in the acquisition of electronic equipment, therefore, the introduction of new payment systems. The trans ition to new forms of economic relations led to the restructuring of the banking system and the introduction of new program forms of reports. One of the first banks to develop Bank cards, which significantly expanded the range of services provided by banks, and gave rise to many other electronic banking technologies. The first credit card known to us was issued in 1914 [3, p.58].
The basis of electronic banking services are operations with Bank cards. Bank plastic card - this is one of the varieties of financial cards, which is the personified payment means intended for payment of goods, services and in some cases, and for making other monetary transactions, such as obtaining credit, receiving cash in banks and their branches ( in so-called points of delivery in cash) and through automatic teller machines (ATMs), cash Deposit in banks, via ATM, in fact, they represent substitutes for banknotes in all their functions, as well as a tool for cash withdrawal from the Bank account; they are one of the progressive means of organizing non-cash payments. The peculiarity of sales and delivery of cash on cards is that during these operations carried out by shops and banks, goods and cash are provided to customers immediately in the funds in the refund comes to the accounts of service companies often need some time (usually 2-3 days). The guarantor of payment obligations arising in the process of servicing plastic cards is issued by the issuing Bank. Therefore, the cards remain the property of the Bank for the entire period of their validity, and the cardholders receive them only for their use. An independent form of banking services-providing customers (individuals in legal entities) the opportunity to conduct many banking transactions using modern electronic technology from a remote workplace - from home, office, car, etc. By entering into a special agreement with the Bank or by incorporating the relevant provisions in the ordinary agreement of the Bank account, the users of such banking services independently acquire the necessary equipment, and the Bank advises them on the equipment of the relevant terminals and the acquisition of the necessary software. The Bank also guarantees technical and methodological support during the installation of the system and initial training of the client's personnel, software updates, and further consultations and recommendations.
Remote customer service can also be carried out using the phone and special programs, in the presence of which the computer is able to answer questions of the client. This type of banking customer service is called telephone banking (krotko - Telebank).
Telebank gives the client the following features:
- get in speech information about the account balances for any operating day;
- get the maximum copy of the statement of account for any operational day, for any period, including the entire period of service in the Bank;
- to receive in speech information on the amounts of receipts in favor of the client for any operating day;
- manage the movement of funds in the account. The system stores such payments in the form of "mockUPS" of payment orders with fixed requisites and empty fields to be filled in by the client for each payment that the client can order using the TV Bank code. When making a payment, the system asks the customer for the payment code and offers to fill in empty fields.
The issue of payment for goods ordered (purchased) on-line, you need to provide its customers with convenient payment options. Of course, for customers the most convenient method is to pay with a plastic card. The necessary details are provided by you on a certain page of online store, then a secure connection is established, and the data of your card are determined to the Bank where this store serves. The Bank checks your solvency, and then informs the store about the result of the check for the possibility of payment [3, p.96].
Recently, there has been an outflow of customers from these banks. It turned out that their main advantage - virtuality - is also the main drawback. The main reason for forcing them to part with such a Bank, customers call the impossibility of human communication. According to the General recognition of Western experts, the" Achilles 'heel" of virtual banks is that they, due to their "virtuality", cannot fully meet the client's needs in dealing with Bank employees and the client's natural right to an individual approach.
As a rule, few people are satisfied with the automatic responses of the virtual Bank to e-mail messages, and the responses from the customer service are held to wait for quite a long time. That is, despite the conveniences that online banking can provide to its clients, the company is not yet ready to abandon live communication when resolving its financial issues.
Experts believe that virtual banks in any case will not completely replace traditional banking branches in the next ten years, although technological progress and force to take certain steps to improve the system of branches. The banking services palette consists of standard products as well as solutions that require further clarification. In such cases, the personal computer is not yet considered as a means of offering services. However, things may change when the computer starts using a magnetic card [4, p. 89].
Introducing Internet technologies in the Kazakh banking sector, it is necessary to anticipate the consequences to which this trend can lead. Foreign experience allows us to see the consequences of the use of Internet technologies by banks. Competition in the banking sector is increasing. This is already noticeable abroad, where time banks are forced to increasingly obey the new laws and principles of organization and conduct of business in the era of digital technology. In the most recent past, the banking market in any economically developed country was an oligopoly in which participants were both economically and legislatively protected from excessive competition. The technology of the new economy in the shortest possible time undermined many of the economic barriers to competition that existed in the banking business. Credit institutions are already experiencing increasing competition from both traditional market players and newcomers such as telecommunications companies or service providers in the global network. Currently, any traditional Bank can suddenly face the fact of competition from the virtual Bank, registered for hundreds of thousands of kilometers from the market. Card electronic payment system by and large is the guarantor of safe transport of card data to the processing center of the acquiring Bank. Of course, in reality, these systems perform much broader functions and offer a variety of services, however, the main purpose is that. From a legal point of view, card electronic payment systems are the usual agent in the management of operations with the card account of the cardholder [5, p. 116].
In fact, they operate only with money records in the Bank, but not with the money itself. Typical representatives of this class of systems in our country companies Cyberplat, Assist, Chronopay and others. It is noteworthy that such systems have not yet become widespread, while Internet card payments are very popular abroad, where plastic cards are the main means of payment. In our country, the most popular electronic payment systems of the second type-operating with digital cash. Take a closer look. The huge scale of fraud has led to the emergence of a fundamentally new type of electronic payment systems that do not work with cards, and with its own currency, equivalent to a certain rate of real money. The user who has registered in the system receives his / her own Internet wallet - in fact, his / her account in a specific electronic payment system. Having replenished this virtual wallet with more than real money, the owner of the "electronic wallet" is able to use the funds in it to pay for goods and services in partner online stores of the system. Account replenishment is carried out in various ways (depending on the system), it is special prepaid cards, Bank transfer, postal transfer, cash in specialized kiosks and even ATMs of partner banks of the electronic payment system, and cash in special exchange offices. It is also possible to replenish by exchange in electronic exchange offices, which have a huge number. Withdrawal of money from the system is usually very complicated and inconvenient (for the user, of course, for the system such a scheme is most beneficial). As a result, the user gets some kind of storage, put in which the money is much more convenient than to get them if necessary (large percentages, a small number of ways to withdraw money, and so on.), however, to use the money lying in your Internet wallet created a huge number of options. The main advantage of electronic payment systems operating with digital cash is the ability to make anonymous payments. owever, this quality has two sides [6, p. 256].
On the one hand, due to this, the payer can hide his identity, thereby making purchases that he would not advertise to the General public, and for the online store is, in fact, tax avoidance. On the other hand, one-day shops can simply "throw" without providing paid goods and services. Nevertheless, the very idea of digital cash is certainly promising. Its basis was laid by David Chaum its eCash technology. And, despite all the problems, electronic money is quite firmly entered into the daily lives of many people. But at the same time, the prospects for the development of such systems and their future are quite uncertain. This uncertainty is related to the uncertainty of the legal status of the systems themselves. Strictly speaking, even to call them electronic payment systems is not quite true, as they operate virtual units (so, WebMoney calls itself "the system of property rights", and "Yandex Money" - "prepaid financial product"). However, these payment systems are very active (and growing) participation in e-Commerce, and further in the commodity and monetary circulation of the country. At the same time, their activities are not regulated by the Central financial institution of the country, and it is unclear how electronic payment systems of this type will develop if the relevant body suddenly decides to restore order. It is noteworthy that the adherents of payment systems with digital cash place great emphasis on the security of their online wallets and payments. Once upon a time, this aspect (in the light of fraud with card payments on the Internet) was fundamental to the emergence of this type of systems. Popularity indeed has risen, but, above all, have rascals out. And all thanks to the same anonymity.
So, for example, within less than half a year from the moment of launch of such service in WebMoney swindlers brought about 1,5 million WMR (1 WMR=1 Tg.), after which the urgent service covered. Digital cash, despite the high level of protection, is still stolen and very successfully. Moreover, representatives of these payment systems tend to blame everything on the unprepared user in terms of information security, users are trying to get their money back (not always possible), and scammers using, among other things, social engineering, really profit from the very virtual money. At the same time, "digital cash" systems are well developed, have their own audience, and are ideal for solving a number of problems. In some cases, using such systems is more convenient and easier than card. As for the payment gateway, IT provides online and OFFLINE authorization of VISA, Eurocard/MasterCard and Union Card plastic cards via the Internet using secure connections. The system implements the functions necessary for payments between buyers and stores using plastic cards as a Payment Instrument (PI). In addition, there is a possibility of flexible integration into the system of new PI, such as accounts for noncash payments, scratch cards, other means of payment, for example, the system of Telebank, etc. Thus, it can be concluded that in Kazakhstan there is a huge potential for the development of new technologies in the use of banking services . An obstacle to the distribution of these services in Kazakhstan is the lack of awareness of the population about the possibilities of remote account service and banking operations through Internet banking and plastic cards. In this regard, the population treat these methods of payment mistrustfully, considers them quite risky and prefers to use the services of branch networks. According to experts, Kazakhstan has already embarked on the path of automation of the banking system and in the near future we can expect that the majority of Kazakh citizens will be able to use the services of Internet banking and plastic cards to the extent in which these means of payment is used in developed countries [7, p.169].
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