Religion in the context of globalization

The article is devoted to the analysis of modern society, in which the blurring of religious representations, the high level of eclecticism and the mythologization of consciousness, along with a stable social demand, forms a complex and diverse confessional market where traditional religions are far from always able to retain dominant positions. This situation, from the point of view of some researchers, raises serious concerns, from the point of view of others it is the natural processes of transformation of religious institutions within highly differentiated, mobile societies. And this kind of "mobile" confessional identity - is the most "adequate" way of existence of faith in modern society.

omic, as well as cultural "metanarrative" - globalization has emerged. The main significance of globalization as a post-secular phenomenon is the expansion of the religious situation of the post-Christian world to the scale of humanity in its actual scope. This is the end of Eurocentrism, which now turns out to be a form of provincialism (Eurocentrism was one of the engines of globalization processes, but as a result it overcame itself). Today, religion is not only traditional, dominant religions and confessions of the Western world. These are all the religions of the whole world down to the smallest cults, both new and indigenous ethnic. Now everything is perceived on a global scale and everything affects everything, so that the religious situation of the West is a world religious situation [1]. But there is no secularization and, most likely, will not be, either in the Islamic world, or in the pre-modern societies of Asia and Africa. The Western world has faced pre-modernity face to face, and there religion is not only not superseded, but also determines a lot, including politics. And so religion returned to this secular world. Globalization "loads" the post-secular era with its own special meaning. In a global context, religion becomes a significant political factor.

The original concept of vision and understanding of the world process is given also by Samuel Huntington, one of the most popular, criticized and quoted modern researchers of civilizational processes [2]. The central idea of his book is polemical in relation to F. Fukuyama's thesis about the "end of history", and also in relation to the concepts of lobbying the idea of global (ie, western) values of democracy and liberalism in the world. It lies in the fact that the conflicts of our time are not completed and not exhausted, but moved to the plane of confrontation of civilizations. S. Huntington, proceeds from the presence in the world of different civilizations with their specific features in the field of culture, religion, traditions. S. Huntington points out that civilization can consist of several homogeneous cultures (Anglo-Saxon) and one country (China). It is characteristic that the boundaries of civilizations can vary depending on the affiliation of peoples and states to a certain group of ethnic groups.

According to S. Huntington, religion, being one of the defining characteristics of civilization, acts as one of the main factors of the "provoking" processes of collision of cultures. This issue is especially acute in connection with the situation of religious revival experienced by most modern societies. Speaking about the consequences of this process, S. Huntington notes that he brought to life an intensification of religious consciousness and the rise of fundamentalist movements, as a result of which the differences between religions became more pronounced. Fundamentalist movements are very noticeable, but they are only the upper part of the iceberg, the processes of religious revival, according to S. Huntington, form today human life. The processes of religious revival affect all aspects of social, economic and political practices. S. Huntington, following George Weigel, calls these processes "the desecularization of the world" [2, p.126].

As the main reasons for the religious revival, C. Huntington singles out the modernization processes, which, in his opinion, provoked the crisis and the death of "ancient sources of identity". In this situation, religion gives a person the opportunity to find new sources of identity, provides new moral foundations, gives meaning to existence. Thus, religious revival is a reaction to atheism. Religion is the institution that promotes, the establishment of "values of order, discipline, work, mutual assistance and human solidarity. Religious groups satisfy social needs, which the state bureaucracy leaves without attention "[2, p.147]. And especially in this process, according to S. Huntington, fundamental religions.

S. Huntington notes that "civilizational conflicts" have replaced the ideological confrontation of the two superpowers - the USSR and the United States. In ideological conflicts confrontation was embodied in the struggle of ideas. Marxism originated in the West and had an open system-scientific character, understandable to Western consciousness. In the conflicts of civilizations, the author writes, the confrontation turns into a completely different plane, a more unpredictable and critical plane. This, in his view, is due to the fact that cultural and religious differences are deeper than ideological and economic ones. "Religion takes over from ideology, writes the American political scientist" [2, p.152].

Analyzing the processes of religious revival in postSoviet countries, S. Huntington notes that "In Russia, religious revival is the result of" a passionate desire to acquire identity, which can only be given by the Orthodox Church, the only unexplained connection with the Russian 1000-year history ", in while in the Muslim republics the resurgence is likewise the result of "the most powerful aspiration in Central Asia: to affirm those Identities that Moscow has been suppressing for decades" [2, p.156].

Particular attention in the work of S. Huntington is given to the analysis of the processes of Islamic religious revival. "Islamic revival", he writes, "in its scope and depth, is the last phase in the adaptation of Islamic civilization to the West, an attempt to find a" solution "not in Western ideologies, but in Islam. It consists of accepting the present rejection of Western culture and returning to Islam as a guide in life and in the modern world" [2, p.161].

He believes that these processes can not be considered only from the narrow positions of their perception as the development of Islamic "fundamentalism" (political Islam). According to S. Huntington, these processes are much broader and represent, first of all, the revival of Islamic ideas, customs and language, these are comprehensive processes affecting the entire Islamic world. It is about creating an "Islamic" civil "society," which compensated for the weakness of institutions of secular civil society. As the author notes, since the 1970s, Islamic institutions have enjoyed increasing support in Muslim countries from Morocco to Indonesia and from Nigeria to Kazakhstan. At the same time, "leaders from the intelligentsia and politics, whether they like it or not, can not ignore or avoid accepting it in one form or another" [2, p.164]. According to him, the Islamic revival is an attempt by Muslims to achieve their goal and to prove to the rest of the world the consistency of the "alternative to the Western" path of development.

Comparing the Arab-Islamic world with the West, S. Huntington says that their structures of political loyalty are mirror images of each other. So in the West, the top of loyalty is the national state and all the language and religious groups that go beyond it have a low status of trust. "Thus, writes S. Huntington," among the many broad and narrow communities, the western manifestations of loyalty have a peak somewhere in the middle, forming a curve like an inverted U ... in the Islamic hierarchy of loyalty, the middle is empty" [2, p.243].

Contrasting the West and the East, S. Huntington writes, "Europe ends where Western Christianity ends and Islam and Orthodoxy begin. This is the answer that Western Europeans want to hear, which is the overwhelming majority they support sotto voce. Most of the intelligentsia and politicians openly adhere to this point of view [2, p.244].

First of all, S. Huntington is interested in Western civilization, it assigns the main role to it, both in opposing the rest of the world, and in finding ways out of the crisis: "The West is the only civilization that has had a huge and sometimes destructive effect on all other civilizations. Consequently, the relationship between the power and culture of the West and the power and cultures of other civilizations is the most comprehensive characteristic of the world of civilizations, "writes the American political scientist" [2, p. 281].

S. Huntington gives recommendations to the US government and leaders of Western countries. According to him, it is necessary to affirm in the West and, above all, in America, Western cultural identity, thus resisting "internal" multiculturalism. For the latter has already begun to level the West, as a unique civilization with its inherent features: the rule of law, the separation of spiritual and secular power, social pluralism, individualism, the diversity of languages, the heritage of antiquity. But in foreign policy, C. Huntington advocates the rejection of any cultural, civilizational, political expansionism in relation to nonWestern civilizations: "The future of the US and the West depends on Americans who reaffirm their commitment to Western civilization. Inside the country, this means refusing to sow discordant appeals for multiculturalism. At the international level, this means abandoning vague and illusory calls to identify the US with Asia" [2, p.505].

S. Huntington attaches great importance to the globalization of economic processes leading to the weakening of the role of the national state and the simultaneous strengthening of the growth of "civilizational self-consciousness" (that is, the awareness of the peoples of belonging to a similar group of cultures, religions, traditions with neighboring peoples). On the one hand, the West, expanding its expansion, is at the peak of its power, but on the other, the contradictory processes of globalization give rise to the aggression of non-Western peoples seeking to maintain their specific way of life. This is how the "confrontation of civilizations" is formed in the world. The important task of the leading powers, which includes the West and Japan, in the opinion of the author, is not to allow the spread of local conflicts into major inter - civilizational wars.

According to the position of the American political scientist, civilizations must "stick together", otherwise there is the possibility not to stand alone against the barbarism represented by the mafia, crime and narcotization.

Naturally, the position of Samuel Huntington is not indisputable. This is proved by a large number of articles, monographs and simply critical responses to his work.

One of the "answers" to S. Huntington's book was the work of Jonathan Sachs "The Dignity of Difference. How to avoid a clash of civilizations. "The chief rabbi of Great Britain, a member of the House of Lords, tries to substantiate the existence in Judaism of mechanisms that will allow representatives of various cultures to live peacefully, having overcome mutual opposition.

Despite the fact that the author of the book is an orthodox rabbi, it is designed primarily for non-Jewish audiences. The main ideological opponent of the author is Plato: "I propose a radically new argument, stating that a certain paradigm that dominated Western thought, religious and secular, since Plato's time, is erroneous and extremely dangerous. I'm talking about the idea that in our search for truth or higher reality, we go from "private" to "universal"... Alfred Whitehead once remarked that all Western philosophy was "a series of notes to Plato". He could express himself even more definitely: not only philosophy, but also Western religion became the abode of the spirit of Plato. The result was inevitable and tragic. If the full truth, both religious and scientific, is one for all and at all times, then if I am right, you are mistaken. If I care about the truth, I must turn you to my side, and beware if you refuse to be converted. Here lies the cause of some of the greatest crimes in history and the source of the streams of human blood ... It's time to deliberately and definitely expel the spirit of Plato. Universalism should be balanced with respect for the local, special, unique", writes Saks [3, p.105].

According to him, in the modern world it is not enough just to be tolerant of other cultures, to show respect, to seek common values or other points of contact. It must be acknowledged that God consciously created the world pluralistic, and recognize an independent truth, which, according to J. Sachs, is in every religious tradition.

In his book, JS Sachs describes a worship service on the site of the ruined twin towers, in which the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Muslim Imam, the Hindu Guru and the Israeli Rabbi participated. In his opinion, such worship can serve as a model for the ideal coexistence of religions in the modern world: "All great religions must become active participants in the struggle for peace, as well as for justice and mercy, without which the world is impossible. This will require great courage, and perhaps even more than mere courage: a sincere admission that in our time more than ever before, we must - every faith alone - find a way of co-existence with those who do not belong to our faith. Are we able to make room for differences? Are you able to hear the voice of God, sounding in a foreign language within another strange culture? .. Can I, remaining a Jew, hear the echo of the divine voice in Hinduism and the religion of the Sikhs, Christianity and Islam? Will I be able to do this and at the same time feel that I have not lost it, but bought it? What will become of my faith, which used to encompass the whole world, and now will have to make room to make room for another faith, another understanding of the world? [3, p. 124]. In his opinion, every religion has the right to exist and, despite its faith, other religions should be recognized not only as "saving", but also true - no matter how different their teachings are from each other.

The bulk of opponents of the position of S. Huntington believes that the problem of cultures and civilizations is of interest to Huntington rather side, secondary, as a possible obstacle to the successful gradual democratization of more and more new regions.

So, according to Pereslegin S., "the text of S. Huntington, although he has some features of scientific work and all the" birth signs "of journalism, should be classed as" strategies. "In essence, we are talking about military-political planning on a far-reaching scale, when the state ethnos plays the role of a minimal tactical unit" [4]. Pereslegin accuses S. Huntington in the absence of clear criteria to determine the "cultural commonality" of individual civilizations. "Within this approach it is absolutely impossible to explain why between Spain and Ireland there is a "cultural community" and there is no such thing between Russia and Poland. To protect himself from such objections, the author puts on the table the next card "everyone knows to which civilization he belongs" In other words, the spectroscopy of civilizations flows beyond identity ...", writes the Russian political scientist [4, p.448].

Asef Bayat, who writes: "You know, i have some problem with the very notion of "clash of civilizations". Because, first of all, this concept creates the impression that the West is something consolidated and opposing the equally consolidated East. But in fact, you first need to understand what Western civilization itself is. Because within the West there are contradictions, tension, and there are different directions of thought in Western society. If we look at the East as something frozen and united, which has fixed ideas, fixed cultures, an unchanging ideology, I believe that from both a historical and a scientific point of view such an approach is unviable. In fact, within these civilizations there are very contradictory processes. In his opinion, the term "clash of civilizations" ignores all these nuances. The division of the world into Western and Muslim is a historical dimension and one must not forget that there is a conflict not only between them. The Western world is also riven by quite serious contradictions. And as a consequence, Asef Bayat believes that the phrase "clash of civilizations" carries a very contradictory meaning and therefore can not be applied in the sense in which it is used by S. Huntington [5].

According to A. Malashenko, the concept of the "clash of civilizations" of Samuel Huntington is systematically subjected to criticism, is gaining popularity in the light of the active activity of Islamists, their great aggressive potential, but it can not be built in absolute terms and accepts literally and uncritically certain provisions of it theory. After all, as noted by Sigmund Freud [6], each religion has rigid protective mechanisms, endowing "those who share it and severely" executes "love", not only those who try to resist it, but those who simply do not recognize it. And this intransigence and intolerance is intensified in a situation where religion is ostracized by the majority, as it is now happening with Islam [7, p.47].

Part of the modern world is characterized by processes of post-secularization, marked by an increase in the "level of religiosity" of the population and the individualization of religion. Religion for the modern person becomes a private matter. The confessional "market" is saturated. According to P. Berger [8], a person at all times needed faith, but what religious beliefs he will follow is the result of the choice of the individual. But how this choice will be and how much it is able to "gain a foothold" in the identity of the person choosing this is a very complex issue.

In modern societies, people continue to shape and maintain their worldviews, their identities through social interactions, during which these identities are formed. However, to date, the availability and expansion of the range of interactions allows a person to participate in the lives of many who they do not meet directly. The importance of such personifications should not be underestimated. The social world and the world of modern man's interactions are greater, the breadth of his involvement in diverse network structures is striking, but the process of self-control remains the same. Social interactions in a postindustrial society are complicated, but the basis of the process does not change. Confessional values, those "ultimate realities" that throughout the whole of human history have formed a "sacred veil" remain fundamental values that form the basic identities of any of modern societies, regardless of its economic, socio-political and other levels of development, let and which has undergone serious transformation at the moment, but has retained its inconsistent relevance, providing both a basis for the world order, and its imbalance in the context of various societies cultural systems and layers.

Today, the blurring of religious ideas, the high level of eclecticism and the mythologization of consciousness, along with a stable social demand, forms a complex and diverse confessional market, where traditional religions are far from always able to retain dominant positions. This situation, from the point of view of some researchers (as an example can be cited by P. Berger [8]), causes serious fears, from the point of view of other researchers, are the natural processes of transformation of religious institutions within highly differentiated, mobile societies. And this kind of "mobile" confessional identity - is the most "adequate" way of existence of faith in modern society.


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Year: 2018
City: Karaganda
Category: Economy