The article considers relevance of the competence approach use in the process of students training that contains the complex of interrelated ideas, principles and methods, which can solve problems in education of future specialists. There is defined the meaning of the term "competence approach", also there are discussed classifications and types of competences.
In modern education there is used a new and creative term such as "competence approach in teaching". What does this mean? It's very important to define the word "approach"? This term is often used as a synonym for the term "method". But, despite this, it has a broad meaning. The approach contains a full range of interrelated ideas, principles and methods that are designed to solve specific tasks. Of course, an important role is played by the understanding of socio-economic, philosophical and psychological-pedagogical prerequisites. It is necessary to analyze the stages and mechanisms that contribute to the goals fulfillment. In pedagogical practice, many approaches and methods used in practice became very popular. These include traditional approaches that are oriented to fundamental knowledge, knowledge system and personal orientation of students and complex interrelation of these approaches. The competence approach is considered as modern developments, which appeared in education at the end of the 20th century. Approaches such as situational, informational and many others are considered competence one. Nowadays, these approaches have not yet been fully completed and do not have a full scientific basis. Despite this, they are widely recognized. The concept of a competence approach was introduced in the 80-ies of the XX century. At the beginning it was told about the competence of the individual and about the competencies that must be achieved in the process of education. Competence considered as "advancing knowledge", "mastering of skills" and "ability to use skills". But as the concept was studied, its meaning was increasingly expanded, and nowadays we use it as approach of this type in education. We offer more detailed consideration of the competence approach in modern vocational education, as well as its goals and content. And this is not a new trend of fashion, but a reality caused by the socioeconomic and educational prerequisites of the last decades, when the market economy is relevant. Today there are absolutely different requirements to young specialist that were not included in previous training programs. These requirements are not directly related to any particular discipline. They are distinguished by their universality, the "non-substantive" nature of acquired knowledge. To form them it's needed to use new pedagogical technologies even more often than new programs. Some scientists call these requirements "over professional", basic qualifications and others key competencies. Key competencies can be very diverse. They are necessity of present life. They can be "crosscutting" skills, such as working on a computer, the ability to search for information, mastering the basic concepts of economics and business, understanding of the environment, fluency in foreign languages, the basics of legal knowledge and marketing skills. They can also include commercial skills, knowledge of sanitary and medical aspects. The key competences, mentioned above, conditionally are related to one of the two areas that define the competence approach. It concerns the development of the personal qualities of specialists that are very important and even necessary for work in a number of different areas. Another direction involves a combination of professional skills and abilities. In both cases, all competences must meet two main criteria. They are inclusiveness and functionality.
The competent approach in higher education implies the need for specialists to form:
o knowledge of the basic principles of the enterprise; o basic knowledge about law;
o knowledge of living principles in the current conditions of competitiveness and possible unemployment;
o willingness to change the profession, and, in some cases, the sphere of activity;
o creative thinking;
o communication skills;
o experience in team work. And also it's very important to have such feature of the character as identity and self-esteem.
Nowadays, there are many different approaches to their classification. It is very important to note that the main types of competencies are determined with the help of both European and domestic systems. The concepts of the main categories are given in the GEF glossary. And also there are determined distinctions of such concepts as "competence" from "competency". Competence is a complex of certain knowledge, skills and abilities person has and his practical experience. Competency refers to the ability to use the acquired professional and personal knowledge in the course of their activities. It should be noted that at the moment there are no unified definitions for "core competencies". Furthermore, in all different information resources, you can find even different names for this notion. In the process of key competences dividing into types in education, researchers point out the blurred and flexible division of these categories. For example we can consider the classification of G.K. Selevko. This researcher offers the following competencies:
- - communicative;
- - mathematical;
- - informative;
- - productive;
- - autonomizing;
- - moral;
- - social.
In the given classification, we can also notice intersecting of types. For example, in this classification mentioned above, it is possible to consider productivity as the general feature of any activity: communication or solving physical tasks. Thus, these types of tasks cannot be distinguished as separate and unrelated.
Crossing values are also found in the Khutorskii classification. He defines the following competencies:
- - educational and cognitive;
- - value-semantic;
- - social and labor;
- - communicative;
- - general cultural;
- - personal;
- - informational.
From 3 to 140 competences can be found in various sources and different researchers. A model list of basic categories was formed at a symposium held in Bern in 1996. It included the following competencies:
- - social and political;
- - intercultural - they help to coexist with people of a different religion or culture;
- - determining ability to life-long learning;
- - related to abilities of written and oral communication.
The most complex types of professional competencies are defined by Zimnyaya I.A. This classification is based on the category of future specialist activity . Zimnyaya distinguishes such types of professional competencies as:
- - related to person as a personality, as a subject of communication, activity;
- - related to the social interaction of people and the environment;
- - related directly to human activities.
Each group has its own kinds of key competencies. The first group includes the following categories:
- - health keeping;
- - value-semantic orientation in the world;
- - citizenship;
- - integration;
- - objective and personal reflection;
- - self-development;
- - self-regulation;
- - professional development;
- - speech and language development;
- - sense of life;
- - knowledge of native language culture.
The main competencies of the second group are the skills of communication and social interaction.
The last block includes competencies:
- - activities;
- - information technologies;
- - cognitive.
There are no great differences between types of competences compiled by different authors. In this regard, it makes sense to study the categories as mutually subordinate components of the subject's activity. In any field of activity competence should include the following components:
- - cognitive;
- - motivational;
- - axiological (value relations, personal orientation);
- - practical (skills, abilities, experience, abilities);
- - emotionally-volitional.
Under this condition competence can be considered as a potential for competence. This potential can be realized in a specific field of activity and it is effective one only with the use of self-regulation and selforganization mechanisms.
The main criteria for the quality of students training and the degree of basic skills formation are types of competencies. Basic skills include self-management skills, communication, social and civil, entrepreneurial, managerial and analytic. The base unit also includes psychomotor skills; cognitive abilities; general labor qualities; social abilities and individually-oriented skills. Here are also polyvalent competence; socio-professional skills; personal and sensorimotor qualifications; special cognitive abilities, etc.
Analyzing the skills discussed above, it should be noted that the basic competencies in education are consistent with them. For example, a social unit includes the ability to take responsibility, work together to work out solutions and participate in their implementation. Among the social competencies there is tolerance to various religions and ethno-cultures, the correlation of individual interests with the needs of society and the enterprise. The cognitive block includes readiness to raise the level of knowledge, the need for implementation and actualization of personal experience, the need to learn more information and acquire new skills and, finally, the ability to self-development.
The characteristics of behavioral indicators are great important for assessing subject's skills. However, it is important to note the levels of development of existing competencies. The best description system is the system, which is used in some European organizations. Also it's possible to notify the important qualities of this classification, distributing them to the appropriate level. In the classical version, each competence includes 5 levels:
- - Leading - A;
- - strong - In;
- - basic - C;
- - insufficient - D;
- - unsatisfactory - E.
The last level indicates that the subject does not have the appropriate skills. Furthermore, it is important that a person does want to develop them. This level is considered unsatisfactory, because the student does not use necessary skills, and also he does not realize their importance. Insufficient level corresponds to a partial demonstration of skills. The subject strives and tries to use the basic skills that are included in the competence and realizes the need for their use, but, unfortunately, the result from this is not always seen. The basic level is considered sufficient and necessary for the specialist. This degree shows the specific abilities and behavioral acts corresponding to this competence. The basic level is considered sufficient to carry out effective activities. A strong level of competence development is necessary for specialists occupying middle management positions. It implies a very good formation of skills. A subject with complex skills can have an active influence on events that take place in the office; this specialist is able to solve operational issues in critical situations. This level also implies the ability to anticipate and prevent negative consequences. The highest level of skill formation is demanded by top managers. Leadership level is required for managers making strategically important decisions. It is assumed that the subject at this stage is not only able to apply the necessary skills on his own, but also can create appropriate opportunities for other people. A specialist who has a leadership level of competencies development can organize events; make rules, norms, procedures that promote the demonstration of skills and abilities.
It should be noted that there are conditions for the implementation of competencies. For the effective use of competencies, they must have a number of necessary characteristics. In particular, they should be:
- - comprehensive. All elements of activities should be covered by a list of competencies;
- - discrete. Certain competence corresponds to a specific activity that is very different from others. Sometimes, there may be difficulties in assessing subjects, this happens when skills overlap;
- - focused. Competencies should be clearly defined. Do not try to cover a large number of areas of activity with the use of one skill;
- - available. It is necessary to use universal formulation for each competence;
- - specific. Competencies serve to strengthen the organizational system and strengthen the goals in the long run. In the situation when they are abstract, there will not be a proper result;
- - modern. It is necessary to modernize and correct the complex of competences, in accordance with reality. They should take into account both current and future needs of the trainee, society, organization and the state as a whole.
A direct result of the educational activities in the competence approach is the formation of basic skills.
These include the following abilities:
- - the ability to explain the occurring phenomena, their essence, causes, the relationship between them, using the necessary knowledge;
- - ability to solve problems in the field of educational activities;
- - orientation in the topical issues of the day such as political, environmental, cross-cultural issues;
- - ability to solve common tasks related to various types of professional and other activities;
- - to navigate in the spiritual realm;
- - ability to solve problems relating to the implementation of certain social roles.
Formation of competences can be explained by the implementation of new curriculum and technology and teaching methods, appropriate to modern conditions. Their list is huge, and opportunities are quite diverse. In this connection it is necessary to identify the main strategic directions. For example, high potential of effective technologies and methods. Its realization influence on the competence achievement and the acquisition of competencies. Thus, to the list of basic tasks of teachers include:
- - creating conditions for self-realization of students;
- - acquisition of effective skills and knowledge;
- - the desire to develop the acquired knowledge and skills in their future activities.
To implement the above objectives, it is necessary to pay attention to the following rules:
- First of all, the teacher should realize that the formation of personality is Central to its activities.
- It's needed to devote a lot of time and effort to the development activity, we should help students to learn the most effective methods of educational-cognitive activity.
- The question "Why?" should frequently be used for the purpose of development of the thinking process. An essential condition for effective work is the understanding of cause and effect.
- A comprehensive analysis of the problem helps to develop creativity.
- It's better to use multiple ways in the solution of cognitive tasks.
- Students must know the prospects of their education. For this purpose the teacher should explain the consequences of certain actions and the results they entail.
- In order to improve knowledge it is possible to use plans and schemes.
- In educational process it is necessary to take into account the individual peculiarities of students. In order to facilitate the solution of educational tasks we should divide them into differentiated groups. In these groups it is advisable to include students with roughly the same knowledge. In order to know the individual characteristics of students it's possible to conduct interviews with parents and other teachers.
- It is important to consider the life experience of each student, their interests, the specifics of the development.
- The important point is the fact that research work of students should be encouraged. You need to find a way to introduce students to the methods of experimental activities, the methods that are used in solving problems or processing information obtained from different sources.
- You should explain to students that if the specialist has all the skills that contribute to the realization of his plans, then it is required to find the corresponding position.
- In the course of the education, each student must understand that knowledge is a vital necessity for him.
All these rules and recommendations are only a small part of the teaching wisdom and skills of previous generations. Their use, however, can facilitate the process of implementation of the tasks and contributes to a fairly rapid achievement of educational goals, which consist in the formation and development of personality. Of course, all these rules have to be updated. Nowadays everything is fleeting; there are new requirements to the quality of education, skills, professionalism, personal qualities of all participants of the process. Of course, in the process of activity planning, the teacher should take into account the process of modernization. Under this condition this activity will achieve the expected results.
Competence-based approach at the University involves the orientation of all components of the educational process for the competencies acquisition by future specialists, that are demanded in the professional field and leads to the integrative quality of the personality, which is called "professional competence". Today, contemporary society and the labor market form the requirements to the generated knowledge, competencies of graduates, nowadays personal qualities of employees are essential. Necessary qualities of University graduates are considered to be initiative, ability to think creatively and use creative approach, responsibility, independence, willingness to professional growth. Without any doubt, the same information concerns the graduates of economic specialties. According to opinion of many experts, competence is an integrative property of personality. This property is a system of competencies that are important for the successful implementation of activities in certain areas, as well as the ability to resolve problem situations and challenges that may arise in any activities. As well as professional competence, an integral feature of personal and proactive qualities of the modern professional, reflecting, the level of knowledge, skills and experience necessary to achieve the objectives of professional activity and socio-moral position of a person is defined as a necessary component of professional education. Professional competence is considered to be one of the important factors that help the graduate to adequately integrate into the social space and be able to direct their effects on the social environment and different social relations in a particular kind of activity.
To sum up, it can be noted that nowadays the concepts of competence and competency are interpreted in the classic way. But competence-based approach is definitely used in order to improve the social and economic efficiency of education, development of human resources of the Kazakhstan society. However, the competence approach and strategy of its implementation should be correlated not only with existing scientific developments, but first and foremost, with the ongoing changes in education. In this context, the relevant question is about the technological support of educational process of modern pedagogical technologies in order to attain the current targets.
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