The article considers problems of formation of tourist clusters in Kazakhstan, which were grouped into 4 groups: economic; industry; socio-cultural; environmental. It is proved that full support and solution to infrastructure problems tourism industry cannot be accomplished solely through private investment, a systematic approach is needed to solve this problem with active state participation.
Statement of the problem.
Improving the competitiveness of the region directly associated with more efficient use of its resources and growth of welfare of the population. Competitiveness acts as the factor that determines the region's place in the economy of Kazakhstan. Therefore, the cluster approach can be an effective tool to stimulate economic development of the regions and the country as a whole, due to the necessity of a theoretical substantiation and methodical support of building the system of innovation development of tourist clusters in the economy of Kazakhstan. Particular scientific and practical importance of research aimed at the elucidation of the significance of the cluster approach to economic development.
No single cluster definition and the multiplicity of interpretations of the cluster concept has led to a diversity of practical approaches to cluster policy, the problem of the relevance of a particular approach in specific conditions of Republic of Kazakhstan in science have not yet been set.
To solve the problem of formation tourist cluster of the required program of reform of the tourism industry and its transition to sustainable development, which should include the following elements:
- - improvement of the existing legislative framework and the establishment of effective mechanisms of its implementation;
- - the training of competent and responsible professionals;
- - development and implementation of financial and economic mechanisms of sustainable development of tourism as priority areas;
- - for development of territorial organization to use geographic and economic approach.
- Analysis of recent researches and publications.
Key provisions of modern theories of the clustering of the economy and patterns of tourism development indicate the need for a unified approach to the development of tourist-recreational complex of the region. Examining the results of previous scientific research well-known foreign and domestic scholars (M. porter, B. Kolb, M. Montford, C. Medlik, S., Hudson, S.R. Erdavletov, M. A. Morozov, V.A. Korablev, V.I. Azar, I.T. Balabanov, I.V. Zorin, S.E. Nikitinsky, V.N. Vukolov, V.A. Kvartalnov, S. K. Suraganova, O. B. Mazbaev), this approach is provided by the concept of "regional tourist destination", in which the main resources of the destination are generating a demand of tourists, and secondary resources provide a standardised quality of the tourism product.
Recognizing the significant contribution of scientists, it should be noted that currently still lack scientific research, representing a comprehensive concept of tourism cluster, taking into account the multidimensional nature of the phenomenon of tourism and considers its development as a gradual process from the definition of tourist and recreational potential of the territory prior to its formation with the active use of management tools destination.
- Selection of the unsolved parts of problem.
As practice shows, the cluster approach plays a crucial role in the formation of tourist and recreational space and the functioning of tourist centers.
The concept of tourist and recreational clusters and how these technologies can form the basis of tourist- recreational zoning and building a new model of tourism development, reflecting modern views on its territorial structure.
Technology of creation and implementation of tourist and recreational clusters on the principles of state partnership provided research and staff support and represent a number of consecutive stages.
A prerequisite and fundamental difference of this study is the need to develop tourist destinations by means of complex solutions to existing problems of development of sphere of tourism in Kazakhstan:
- - Lack of conceptual support tourism in the domestic and international market;
- - Low cooperation of public, tourist companies and accommodation facilities does not create sufficient conditions for the formation of a tourist cluster
- - insufficiently developed tourist infrastructure, the poor transport infrastructure;
- - poor ecological condition, and littered the coastal zones of water bodies and natural areas;
- - lack of ready investment sites and investment projects in the sphere of tourism;
- - the imperfection of the regulatory framework, especially in terms of land use in nature oriented site, the presence of administrative barriers;
- - acute shortage of hotel and entertainment infrastructure budget segment, especially in seasonal periods;
- - low level of service and quality in places of recreation of tourists, due to the lack of personnel and lack of qualified personnel in the tertiary sector.
- The aim of the study is a generalization of problems of formation and development of tourist clusters in the Republic of Kazakhstan.
- The main results of the study.
The Republic of Kazakhstan has rather high tourist and recreational potential. On the territory of the Republic has unique natural and recreational resources, objects of national and world cultural and historical heritage. The presence of a variety of tourist resources allows the development of almost all major types of tourism: beach, cultural, educational, business, and active, Wellness and eco-tourism.
As you know, the goals and objectives of the tourism policy depends on the prevailing economic, political and social conditions in the tourism industry. As a policy, we can conclude that at present, tourism remains a development priority only on paper, the strategic indicators for the development of tourism does not correspond to the reality and potential of tourism. And as we have seen, are often indicators of various software documents are not interrelated and contradictory.
Tourism cluster is a concentration within the same limited area of interconnected enterprises and organizations involved in the development, manufacture, promotion and sale of tourist product, as well as activities related to tourism and recreation services .
The goal of creating a tourism cluster is to increase the competitiveness of the territory on the tourism market due to the synergistic effect, including:
o improve the efficiency of enterprises and organizations participating in the cluster,
o promote innovation and development of new tourist destinations.
The creation of a tourist cluster in fact determines the positioning of the territory and influences on formation of positive image of region, which will create a highly integrated tourist offers and competitive tourism products. In Kazakhstan it is possible to create five tourist clusters: Astana, Almaty, East Kazakhstan, South Kazakhstan and West Kazakhstan.
The Ministry for investment and development of Kazakhstan with the participation of the largest international consulting companies from Canada, Germany, Spain, and Croatia has developed Systematic plans for the development of the Republic of Kazakhstan and five regions (figure 1).
On their basis developed and approved the Concept of development of tourism industry of the Republic of Kazakhstan until 2020, approved by Government Resolution No. 508 of 19 may 2014. Currently the main strategic document of development of the industry of tourism and hospitality of Kazakhstan. It summarizes new approaches for the development of tourism industry in Kazakhstan, primarily highlighted 5 key tourism clusters :
- "Nature and modernity" (Astana Burabai- Shchuchinsk resort area);
- "World of wonders" (the tourist potential of East Kazakhstan);
- "Urban tourism and recreation in mountains" (ski resorts near Almaty, Ile-Alatau state national nature Park);
- -"Heart of the silk road" (Architectural and archaeological heritage in South Kazakhstan region, Sayram-Ugam state national nature Park);
- - "Caspian Riviera" (the Kenderli resort).
Thus, completion of phase 1 of the concept of development of tourism of Kazakhstan, we can say yet modest results of its implementation.
However, no region can boast of the attractiveness and accessibility of tourist facilities which are popular with foreign tourists, almost all regions of Kazakhstan is not a developed tourist infrastructure.
This is confirmed by the slight increase of visitors non-residents entering the country  (table 1).
The number of non-resident visitors arrived in the Republic of Kazakhstan, people
5 685 132
6 163 204
6 841 085
6 332 734
5 195 043
5 542 447
6 213 390
5 655 246
outside of the CIS
Note - compiled by the authors according to the source 
Table 1 - Number of visitors arrived in the Republic of Kazakhstan
As can be seen, there has recently been a small increase in the number of arrivals of visitors-non- residents, the major share - almost 90% - is accounted for the CIS countries. 3 CIS countries: Uzbekistan, Russia and Kyrgyzstan have 5 173 037 people, or 91% visit Kazakhstan in 2015. The main motive of entry of citizens of CIS countries is labor. The economy of Kazakhstan is peculiar to the labor-intensive type of development. Labor-intensive type of economy of Kazakhstan, as well as active development of in the country sectors of construction, wholesale and retail sales, lead to an increasing demand for labour, most of them have low or medium qualifications.
One of the key problems of development of tourism is poor infrastructure.
Competition in the global market will not tolerate condescension, especially in such sensitive sectors as transport, communications and service. The head of state Nursultan Abishevich Nazarbayev in the Strategy "Kazakhstan-2050" clearly determined that "infrastructure must expand the possibilities of economic growth." 
For high-quality and targeted solutions to infrastructure problems constraining the development of the tourism industry and its effectiveness in the regions, it is necessary to identify the factors
contributing to their appearance. In General summarized four main factors of ineffective development of regional tourism infrastructure:
- - General economic;
- - Branch;
- - Socio-cultural;
- - Environmental.
Thus, it is possible to distinguish four groups of problems of development of regional tourism infrastructure.
Group A. Challenges due to General economic factors
This group of problems is system-wide (financing of tourism infrastructure; problem of ownership; the aging infrastructure of tourism - slow updating; lack of capacity of tourism infrastructure; imbalances of territorial development, etc.).
First, the problems: a) deterioration and aging of existing infrastructure; b) funding of modernization, or create new objects. At the moment most of the elements of the tourist infrastructure of Kazakhstan is operated in excess of the normative period of use (average 10-15 years), and in some cases, this excess reaches three times the level. One reason for this problem is the lack of a mechanism of strategic management of tourism infrastructure development in the regions.
The solution to this problem in the regions is possible by creating new tourism infrastructure and upgrading existing ones. However, it should be clearly understood that infrastructure is the most inert, low- yielding and capital intensive sector, is particularly sensitive to risks. In this light, the region is faced with the problem of attracting investment in tourism infrastructure. Involvement of private capital is a complex task that requires a lot of work, and impossible if the government will not be able to provide a conducive investment climate for long-term projects .
The analysis of the current situation in the tourism sector of developed countries has shown that full support and solution to infrastructure problems tourism industry cannot be accomplished solely through private investment. Requires a systematic, layered approach to solving this problem, which can be realized only with the active cooperation of all levels of state authorities and private business.
The need for investment in the development of tourism infrastructure in the regions is so large that the financing of investment projects wholly funded by private or public funds may be insolvent. It is obvious that large-scale infrastructure rebuilding tourism industry can only be realized on the basis of cooperation of a large number of participants, which involves the creation of a developed system of equity, unifying budgetary and extra-budgetary sources into a single Fund to Finance infrastructure. A consequence of the above unresolved problems is the lack of infrastructural facilities of tourism in some regions of Kazakhstan. Analysis of the elements of the tourist infrastructure has shown that there is a significant lack of capacity in various segments, providing accommodation, catering, and recreation and leisure consumers of the regional tourism product. At the same time a material adverse effect on the development of tourism in some regions has limited transport, energy and communication infrastructure. It should be noted that currently there are positive trends for some elements of the tourist infrastructure.
Group B. Problems due to industry specifics.
Of great importance are the problems caused by the specifics of the tourist infrastructure.
- Seasonality of use of the infrastructure. The seasonality of certain types of tourism makes it impossible for all-season use of elements of specialized infrastructure (ski slopes, beaches, etc.).
- Focus on a specific target segment. Implemented by tourism product is often focused on individual consumer imposes specific requirements for infrastructure elements, their composition and quality.
- Increased demands on engineering, environmental, personal safety.
Group Challenges, due to socio-cultural factors.
Important variables affecting the attractiveness of a tourist destination for various groups and categories of tourists is its cultural and social characteristics. The greatest interest to the tourists such elements of culture as art, science, religion, history, etc. familiarity with the culture and customs of another country enriches the spiritual world. In seeking to diversify their leisure time, people covers all new cultural resources. Travel business explores new territory and a new cultural space.
Violation of the historical appearance of the site. Each newly created tourist center (the facility) shall conform to the national peculiarities and traditions and have its own unique look. The formation of tourist destinations should contribute to the salvation of the most valuable monuments of culture and history as an integral architectural and cultural complex. However, this principle is not always observed: in the place of historical and cultural sites are anonymous copies; and traditional ensembles and landscapes embedded foreign elements .
In the planning and development of regional tourism infrastructure necessary to carry out the conservation and restoration of monuments of culture and history man-made, natural and traditional landscapes, which are also regarded as an enduring historical value, a national treasure.
- The Preservation of culture and traditions. At the organization of the regional tourism infrastructure should wisely combine traditional forms of activity that have historically shaped these areas with innovative types. Moreover, new activities should complement and not overwhelm the existing traditional economic, sociocultural and natural processes. The loss of cultural values is irreplaceable and irreversible. Any loss of cultural heritage will inevitably affect all areas of life for present and future generations, will lead to spiritual impoverishment and tear of historical memory, the impoverishment of society as a whole. They can't be compensated neither by the development of modern culture or the creation of significant new works.
- The Rejection of the local population. Due to social tensions and differences of incomes of the population at the present time there is a rejection by the local population, tourists wishing to relax in a particular area. As a rule, the tourist consumes services of high quality provided high level infrastructure. Another annoying factor can be the payment for the local population of the cultural-historical and natural heritage, after the appropriate infrastructure equipment. The problem of inconsistency in the level of tourist facilities and the surrounding socio-economic environment give rise to xenophobia; the emergence of complex "inferiority" of the local population in connection with impossibility to use a number of tourist objects (e.g., restaurants, sports complexes); the deterioration of a crime situation in the region, inter-ethnic and interconfessional conflicts, etc.
Group G. the Problems caused by environmental factors.
The implementation of infrastructure projects in the field of tourism associated with the intervention in the natural environment of the territory and could lead to disruption of ecological balance, and even to the loss of the territory tourist attractiveness. This leads to the following problems:
- The Disparity of regional tourism infrastructure, the level of throughput the territory, i.e. the level of attendance of the object or area, the excess of which leads to unacceptable environmental impacts, or as a result of actions (or natural processes of life) the tourists themselves, or by the operation supports the tourism infrastructure. 
- The Following environmental problem associated with the development of regional tourism infrastructure is a frequent excess in the tourist centers, the level of anthropogenic load - i.e. external impacts on the natural environment (static and dynamic, permanent and temporary), causing deformation and changes in its elements.
- The Fragility of natural ecosystems. Using mostly outdated technologies in the creation of a regional tourism infrastructure is a major constraint for tourism development in many potentially attractive areas. The reason for this is the high (and sometimes ultra-high) the sensitivity of many ecosystems to anthropogenic influences, their fragility. In some cases, the ecosystems of the territories can be regarded as a vital resource for local communities, so their protection is also related to security culture .
The factors are basic and determine the nature of the development of tourist infrastructure in the regions, and the list of problems for each group can be expanded. The nature of the factors allows drawing a conclusion about the relationship problems of regional tourism infrastructure with the problems of the region's economy as a whole. This underlines the need for a holistic view of the regional tourism infrastructure and a systematic approach to their solution.
In conditions of high uncertainty and variability of internal factors and external conditions of development of tourism of the national government and regional policy, and business practice needs to be adapted to the perception of such changes. Their comprehensive and systematic diagnosis allows properly to ensure that global trends and national peculiarities, to outline the territorial-sectorial perspectives of cluster initiatives, to consolidate the efforts of government and business and, finally, to serve as a road map for consistent implementation and promotion of tourist products of the regions of Kazakhstan.
- Ефимова К.В. Теоретические аспекты использования кластеров в формировании конкурентоспособной экономики // Вестник Уральского института экономики, управления и права. - 2009. - № 2. - С. 48-58.
- Концепция развития туристской отрасли Республики Казахстан до 2020 года Режим доступа - // http://dep-turizm.mid.gov.kz/
- Развитие туризма и гостиничного хозяйства в Республике Казахстан в 2015 г. // Режим доступа - www.stat.gov.kz
- Стратегия Казахстан-2050 Режим доступа - //http:/ /strategy2050.kz/ru/
- Горелов И.Н. Перспективы реализации кластерных инициатив в регионах. // Региональная экономика: теория и практика. - 2012. - № 12. - С. 54-57.
- Квартальнов В.А., Романов А.А. Международный туризм: политика развития. - М.:2000
- Жуспекова А.К., Кенжебеков Н.Д., Матаева Б.Т. и др. Индустрия туризма и гостеприимства Республики Казахстан: проблемы и механизмы развития. - Караганда: Типография КЭУ Казпотребсоюза, 2015. - 269 с.
- Тарасова О.Ю. Перспективы развития туристского бизнеса России в период постиндустриальной экономики // Социально-экономические явления и процессы. - 2014. - № 1 (059). - С.126-135.