Innovative marketing as instrument of increase of competitiveness of the rk industrial enterprises

This article is devoted to studying of introduction of "innovative" marketing at the industrial enterprises of Kazakhstan, and also a number of foreign countries. In article the tendency of development and application of innovations in general in economy of foreign countries is considered, experience and results of introduction of "innovative" marketing in some large industrial enterprises is analyzed. Also, statistical data on a rating of the countries on criterion an innovation are provided in article, and also data on the reasons of a failure of innovative products in the market are provided.

Now, the economy of Kazakhstan is characterized by high interest in an innovative way of the development. The increasing number of the enterprises seek to choose an innovative way of development which differs from the traditional radically. It is caused by the following factors: increase of level of the competition from the manufacturing enterprises; more attentive and exacting relation of consumers to goods and services.

Producers rely on needs of clients and, respectively, try to put on the market better and competitive goods which will possess valuable characteristics and to be in demand for potential clients.

However, according to foreign statistics, among consumer goods about 40% of novelties don't survive in the market, and among goods of industrial function and services sector of 20% of novelties are out of work [1]. Some main reasons for commercial failures of modern innovative goods and services, according to foreign experts, are: an alternative competition policy in the market - 8%, the late beginning of sale of goods novelties - 10%, a mistake in marketing activity - 13%, the high level of prices for goods novelties - 14%, technological imperfection of goods novelties - 23%, the wrong assessment of requirements imposed by consumers to goods novelties - about 32%.

The set of mistakes at a conclusion to the market of innovative products, is connected with a marketing component or mistakes in this marketing sphere. It means that the enterprises should pay special attention to marketing maintenance of goods to the market or to marketing of innovations.

Marketing of innovations is marketing activities for creation and advance of goods, services, projects, etc. which possess significantly new properties (steady competitive advantages) [2]. The innovation acts as object in marketing of innovations. The purpose of marketing of innovations is marketing maintenance of this innovation in the market. Goods or service can act as an innovation.

Innovative marketing is a formation of the new markets and new requirements at buyers . Industrial marketing is a sale of goods and services to industrial and institutional clients whom the manufacturing companies, government agencies, the municipal enterprises, educational and medical institutions, wholesale and retail sellers treat. It is possible to tell that industrial marketing supports functioning of economy.

A. Demchenko pays special attention to various perception of innovations, both at consumers, and at producers. From the point of view of the consumer conceptual approach to innovations includes three components: requirement, new idea, set of actions for realization of an innovation. From the point of view of the producer the innovation includes novelty degree, the concept of an innovation, intensity of an innovation [3].

Features of marketing of innovations follow from features of innovative process. Between development and application of an industrial output there is quite considerable period therefore the end result from its use will be shown only in the future. In system of marketing of innovations the technological forecasting aiming at identification of such research and development directions, results from which realization, will be competitive in the future has to take an important place. It is necessary to investigate with high degree of care the directions of changes of requirements, both in the intellectual contents, and in the final product.

Hotyasheva O. M. allocates one of the most widespread types of marketing innovations, among which:

  • - use of new methods of market researches;
  • - application of new strategy of segmentation of the market;
  • - choice of new marketing strategy of coverage and development of a target segment;
  • - change of the concept put in assortment policy;
  • - modifying of curve PLC;
  • - goods repozitsionirovaniye;
  • - change available or use of new price strategy, new methods of establishment of the initial price and/or system of discounts;
  • - creation of new sales channels;
  • - change of an orientation of marketing policy of the company;
  • - exit to new sales markets;
  • - use of new forms and means of communication policy: new look, character and advertizing media or election of methods of sales promotion and involvement of consumers, nonconventional for firms, etc. [4]

Considering the theory of life cycle of goods (service), N. F. Permichev and O. A. Paleeva note that the main innovative efforts of marketing specialists:

  • - at a removal stage on the market are directed on innovations in the field of awareness on goods;
  • - at growth stage - on an innovation in preferences of brand;
  • - at a maturity stage - on an innovation in commitment to brand;
  • - at a decay - on an innovation of selective influence. [5]

Therefore, innovative methods of marketing work at each of stages PLC and have the features proceeding from its stage.

In general, the marketing innovation can be developed in parallel with a technological or grocery innovation, slightly changing, supplementing or transforming a total product. Marketing innovations can have the isolated character and act as separate goods which are offered to the market and is developed according to inquiries of consumers . The marketing innovation can be used for more effective advance of the available goods or service, based on innovative technologies of marketing.

Thus, it is possible to allocate 3 main approaches to understanding of marketing innovations:

  1. The marketing innovation is a consequence (or parallel process) introductions of other types of innovations (technological, grocery, ecological, etc. innovations);
  2. The marketing innovation is separate goods (product) offered the market;
  3. The marketing innovation is a technology (method) of innovative marketing.

We studied experiment of foreign countries on application and functioning of innovative marketing in activity of the industrial enterprises.

Considering experience of the USA it is possible to note that the situation in world economy reached by this country is caused by use of the mechanism of innovations. The enterprises occupied with introduction of new development in production are given various help in providing with information, financial and real resources in the form of the state support and the preferential taxation. Also, the support of joint research projects of corporations and universities directed on uses of internal research shots of the private sector and academic institutions was widely adopted, updating of the production equipment at the participating enterprises is carried out. The special role in work on introduction of a cycle on ensuring demand for innovative ideas is played by the venture capital. The purposes of the businessmen occupied with venture business - "cultivation" of the new technological companies and receiving profit on investments in innovative business.

In the USA the huge number of the giant enterprises having the network worldwide functions. So, new strategy of segmentation became for the giant of the soda industry of the USA to the Coca-Cola company the main method of conducting fight against PepsiCo corporation ("Pepsi To"). The aggressive policy of a gain serially of one segment behind another was combined with technological innovations. Coca-Cola presented on the market the whole grocery line where each new product intended for a certain segment, since "Frisi" - for teenagers, "To the Nye Kouk" and "Coca-Cola the classic" without caffeine - for women.

Choosing this or that segment, the companies even more often change reference points. For example, the Procter&Gamble company actively uses in recent years strategy "segmentations deep into", constantly adapting (modifying) goods for satisfaction of individual inquiries of small groups of buyers by means of the trademark and aggressive advertizing.

Analyzing Japanese economy, it should be noted that the main incentive for development of the national innovative mechanism of this country became - limitation of Japanese national raw material and energy resources. Today Japan imports natural resources, necessary for the country, in exchange for export of high-quality production on the majority of types of goods and services.

For the Japanese enterprises quite naturally to turn new technologies into new goods, and new goods - in new businesses of the company. No wonder that on average Japanese firms gain 44% of income from sale of new goods, that is that are for the first time started on the market not earlier than 5 years ago. While in the American companies the share of the income from them doesn't exceed 28%. Because of fierce competition major Japanese companies in parallel develop some generations of goods. As soon as the initial model loses positions in the market, replacement in the form of the next generation is already ready. It in particular is noticeable in the markets of electronics and cars.

To be fair it should be noted that always the Japanese who were engaged in search of ideas worldwide develop technologies not only at home, but in recent years seriously invest and in the foreign companies creating technologies. In search of new, encouraging creativity, NEC, Sony, Panasonic, and Toshiba, for example, created own venture firms to be engaged in financing of the foreign companies, promising from the point of view of creation of new technologies. In the majority young and ambitious American firms got to their number. The history with investments of Sony into the American Transmeta which presented to the world Crusoe chips which Sony successfully used in the Vaio laptops popular nowadays can be an example of success, having interested also other producers in a novelty.

Studying history of formation of economic system of Western Europe it is possible to draw a conclusion that many countries have own innovative mechanisms with well developed search and implementation cycles. For many years economic cooperation promoted formation of the uniform innovative region. Before us model of the European Community which is based on cooperation between various governments and the private companies of various countries. In this model the innovative mechanism is taken out for a national framework.

Works on development of the innovative mechanism are conducted intensively and in the context of the most advanced economic tendencies in the world. In particular, the countries of the European Union actively participate in transfer of mass production to China, continuing to control distribution of production exported from China. For increase of overall performance of the innovative mechanism regarding transformation of scientific inventions in industrial technologies development of small business is actively stimulated.

In Europe the modern competitive innovative mechanism is created, and existence of unresolved structural and organizational issues opens additional prospects for mutually beneficial cooperation with this region.

Follows from consideration of tendencies of development of economy of China that China, using the economic competition between the USA, Europe and Japan, I managed to create conditions for movement of mass production from these countries to the country. Most major companies, controlling world system of distribution of goods, transfer mass production of production to China. Diversification of inflow of technologies of mass production between three economic centers: The USA, Europe and Japan creates prerequisites for growth of economic and political stability of China.

The innovative portrait of economy of China looks as follows: relying on abundance of cheap labor, the country was integrated into the international system of mass production. Using the economic competition between the main world economic centers, China could import favourably technologies of mass production, and at a lack of own financial means, import the financial capital necessary for its development. The main incentive of development of the national innovative mechanism - need of modernization of economy and providing more than the milliard population of the country modern production. For ensuring stability of growth of economy and reduction of the external economic dependence China seeks to develop the innovative mechanism in key branches of economy.

The innovative enterprises have an opportunity actively to participate in formation of the new markets that will allow them to take on them the leading positions, gaining on this basis additional income.

In scientific park in Shenzhen more than 90 new technologies and products are developed, some of which became elements of national scientific and technical strategy in the field of advanced technologies. Some technologies as, for example, the Chinese integrated computer Chzhuchzhen system, the portable x-ray Henton installation and others are the best in the world.

Successful activity of department of marketing allowed scientific park to gain image of the organization connected with high innovative technologies in Shenzhen and to attract elite domestic-owned and foreign firms. However the program of marketing is directed on involvement first of all of domestic clients, then the emphasis will be placed on the international marketing. Innovative marketing activity of science and technology park includes:

  • - carrying out an advertizing campaign in mass media, regular scientific and technical seminars, forums and conferences;
  • - organization of exhibitions and fairs of technologies and finished products;
  • - establishment of university grants;
  • - distribution of monthly information letters;
  • - broad exchange of information;
  • - participation in the international actions.

Analyzing the Russian experience, it should be noted that the considerable part of the domestic innovative companies of this country determines by the purpose development not only domestic market, but also production of goods and services which are demanded and in foreign markets (production of OPK, results of activity of the companies which are engaged in offshore programming). Nevertheless, they far not fully use the potential in the foreign markets. One of the main reasons for that - insufficient application of methods of marketing in the international business. As shows world experiment, the success of the innovative company in foreign markets in many respects depends on efficiency of use of tools of the international marketing, that is orientation of activity to needs of foreign clients. It is about ability to develop and realize strategy of behavior of firm in the chosen commodity markets, existence of effective system of advance of new goods and technologies [6].

At the Russian industrial enterprises it is necessary to introduce and master tools of innovative marketing:

  • - algorithm of the organization of innovative marketing activity;
  • - model of a choice of a marketing innovation for realization;
  • - a technique of marketing maintenance of new industrial goods at an introduction stage on the market.

These innovations will provide competitiveness and profitability of the Russian industrial enterprises in the local and foreign markets.

Studying the Kazakhstan economy, it should be noted that now in Kazakhstan the level of innovative activity makes 4,3% while in Germany this indicator reaches 80%, in the USA, Sweden, France - about 50%, in Russia - 9,1%.

Need of increase of innovative activity of the enterprises in Kazakhstan decides by the entry of the country into the WTO, and also formation of the Common economic space on Russia and Belarus.

The last years in the solution of this problem are felt big shifts thanks to an integrated approach from the state. The Law "About Innovative Activity" which governs the relations in the sphere of innovative activity was adopted and defines the fundamental principles, the directions and forms of realization of the state innovative policy. Certain strategic programs for development of the directions of innovative activity are accepted. The specialized structures and institutes forming infrastructure of development of innovative activity such as JSC National Innovative Fund, JSC Kazagroinnovation, JSC Fund of Science, JSC Center of Engineering and Transfer of Technologies and some other the institutes supporting various branches of economy are in addition created.

Kazakhstan in the Global innovative index for 2013 took the 84th place, in 2014 - the 79th place [7, 8].

JSC "National Innovative Fund" (Fund/JSC "NIF") - a main objective of activity of Fund is assistance in ensuring coordination of processes of innovative development and representation of measures of the state support. The fund carries out the activity on the basis of the main long-term and medium-term program documents of the state, such as the State program of the forced industrial and innovative development for 2010-2014, the Program for development of innovations and assistance of technological modernization in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2010-2014, the Interindustry plan of scientific and technological development of the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2020", etc.

In total Fund financed 15 innovative projects, 55 developmental development. Now with the assistance of Fund 9 innovative projects are realized. In 2011 NIF left two design companies, having earned more than 320 million tenges. So, the Fund left the design company Agrofos-Yug LLP, having sold share of 40%. The cost of share Fonda in the design company according to the contract of purchase and sale (an option for sale) as of date of payment made 280,7 million tenges. Payment was made by Agrofos-Yug LLP a lump sum. Thus the investment income of Fund made 73,05 million tenges, or 33,1% of the sum of investments.

Also "NIF" left the design company Karagandinsky farmatsevtichesky kompleks LLP, having sold share of 33,3%. The cost of a share of Fund in the design company according to the contract of purchase and sale (an option for sale) as of date of payment made 585,7 million tenges. Thus the investment income of Fund made 247,3 million tenges, or 73,1% of the sum of investments.

Also the Fund got to work on creation of branch and regional venture funds. The regional venture fund will enable financing and the realization of innovative projects of the region. The branch venture fund will be aimed at the development of high-tech industries in the country. So, the regional venture fund, the first in the history of the country, - "Joint-stock investment fund of risk investment "Regional venture fund "Caspian Sea" - was created in July of this year in Mangistausky area with participation of JSC National Innovative Fund and social and enterprise corporation "Caspian Sea". Besides, the question of creation of branch venture fund together with KazMunaiGas, a number of the private companies having successful experience of venture financing is studied today.

However a root of all problems of builders of the Kazakhstan NIS is lack of real demand for innovative development from industrial sector. In the conditions of the insufficient competition large and medium domestic business in the majority is poorly interested in additional investments in new development. And here at the state it will hardly turn out to use directive methods so effectively, as at creation of infrastructure.

 

The list of the used literature:

  1. Ivanchenko O. P. Theoretical bases of the contents and development of marketing innovations "Economy and modern management: theory and practice": materials XXVIII of the international correspondence nauchno_praktichesky conference. (on August 14, 2013) [An electronic resource] / O. P. Ivanchenko - the access Mode: http://sibac .info/ 2009_07_01_10_21_16/9903.
  2. Marketing: the big explanatory dictionary / under the editorship of A. P. Pankrukhin; Guild of marketing specialists. - M.: Omega_l, 2008 (Kirov). - 261 pages - ISBN 978-5370-00056-0
  3. Demchenko A. Marketing innovations in the conditions of crisis / Demchenko And.//Marketing. - 2009. - No. 01. - Page 44-50.
  4. Hotyasheva, O. M. Innovative management. - St. Petersburg, 2006. - 384 pages.
  5. Permichev N. F. Management of the innovative capacity of the enterprise / N. F. Permichev, A.M. Barykov, O. A. Paleeva. - N. Novgorod: Publishing house of VVAGS, 2008. - 83 pages - ISBN 978-5-85152682-4
  6. Updating mechanism: Concept of development of national innovative system of Russia. - M.: Publishing and trade corporation "Dashkov and To", 2003. - 144 pages.
  7. "The Global Innovation Index 2013": Cornell University, INSEAD and WIPO, printed and bound in Geneva, Switzerland, 2013, 393 pages.
  8. "The Global Innovation Index 2014": Cornell University, INSEAD and WIPO, printed and bound in Geneva, Switzerland, 2014, 401 pages.
Year: 2015
City: Karaganda
Category: Economy