The role of marketing in shaping the image and creating a national brand of the country as a factor in the development of tourism in Kazakhstan.
This article discusses about the marketing approach to image formation, creation and promotion of a brand of Kazakhstan as a national idea. The theoretical substantiation of necessity for using marketing tools is given as a form of the country's image for developing tourism and territory. The authors, recognizing the importance of a single national brand of the country, at the same time warned that the creation and promotion it must be seen as a long process, as opposed to those opinions. Interesting and worthy of attention, those who are directly responsible for the formation of the image, creating and promoting the country's brand, is the example of Germany in solving this problem, which is used in preparation for the World Cup in 2006. This approach is possible, according to the authors, in preparation for the Expo-2017 and Universiade-2017 and proposals are given to apply similar marketing tools to enhance the image of Kazakhstan.
Symbols and brands in consciousness and behaviour of the modern consumer
The phenomenon of consumer consciousness has already been the focus of special humanitarian and applied researches for a long time. At that along with material well-being growth a symbolic aspect of consumerism is emphasized still oftener. R. Barthes, J. Baudrillard, F. Jameson, P. Bourdieu, M. Foucault and other competent authors analyzed a semiotic character of consumer relations from different methodological viewpoints . Baudrillard's concept seems the most consistent of all the rest. Beginning from sketchy The system of objects and concluding with the creation period of For a critique of the political economy of the sign, Baudrillard strictly adhered to the same theorem of consumerism: "Consumption, as much as this word actually means, is activity of a systematic manipulation of signs" .
From this viewpoint consumerism is reduced not to consumption of things or services proper, but only of content mediated by them (for example, social status). The goods becomes an element of some peculiar symbolic constructor.
The important psychological factor, defining the relation to the goods, is the brand. According to David Olgvy the brand is an intangible sum of properties of a product, service or firm. (Initially in America a brand - incandescent iron for marking cows within a herd and a brand itself on cattle croup or ear) .
Earlier it was considered, that the brand is a synonym of a famous trademark. In modern consumption the brand is the goods/service/company, possessing psychological resources (value), but neither its trademark (brand name), nor the set of ideas about it (associations of a brand or a brand myth), nor the system of ideas, images about it (brand image). The brand meaning given in the dictionary of economic terms: the world famous trade mark; the product protected legislatively; the company (its name) or the concept separated from a lot of the same kind by public consciousness.
The theme of our research is connected with a collective, complex brand - a brand of places and of a country as a whole. About these brands there are much less publications, than about brands of products, services and firms although the interrelation between the first and the second exists and it is rather complex one.
From branding of the goods and services through place branding towards country branding
For successful participation of Kazakhstan in competition among countries, and also for its effective integration into world economic area one needs research and development of its competitive advantages, including - of branding and image nature. Country image is formed not only by means of popularisation and purposeful distribution of the positive information about products services and firms, but also is based on all sides of social life and economy of separate territories and countries as a whole.
Place branding in many developed countries has become one of efficient tools of their territory (city, region, country as a whole) development. In the CIS countries place branding principles started to be used rather recently where the concept proper has just begun to be included into system of marketing of these countries, the Given method assumes planning and territory development as single integral investment or tourist object. Thus, place brand - set of well-established images, opinions, events, products and services, associated by target audiences with definite territory, and in total - with a country. This image can be unified (if constituent brands of places, individual companies and organizations harmonize with each other) or fragmented (if a country is torn apart by contradictions - ethnic, political, cultural and language, etc.).
The integral country brand is made up of great number of components: political or public figures of the given state, separate areas of its vital activity - power, economy, army, foreign and domestic policies, culture, outstanding figures etc. It is that that defines reputation the state gets or will get in consciousness of world community as a result of interactions of either of its subjects (territories) with the rest of the world. Therefore the country brand is a cumulative indicator of authority and success of its actions on international stage, opinion estimation of the foreign public about a country. Today it is already acknowledged, that programs of creation and promotion of a brand, formation of country image in the modern world it is possible and it is necessary to carry out with use of marketing tools.
When comparing present time with the time of independence of Kazakhstan beginning, citizens of our republic see the enormous positive changes, a new image of the country constructed the worthy present and resolutely directed to uneasy globalized future. And do other world countries know this renewed rapidly developing Kazakhstan? Or do many of them still associate our republic with agrarian and raw material backwardness and mainly culture of nomadic shepherds? Even not all citizens of Kazakhstan notice and adequately estimate dramatic changes of successful entry of the country in global social and economic community, in the Eurasian and world culture. Our rich and glorious history, our present outstanding successes we report insufficiently about to world community, we work insufficiently on creation of brands of Kazakhstan territories and the country as a whole.
One of the reasons of delay use of areas branding - unwillingness to apply marketing principles, as it demands transition from "object" method (remained after the planned economy), to marketing one - "territorial". Certainly, and using "object" approach too development strategies were worked out considering attraction of investments and tourists. However they have been aimed only at certain objects. At such approach the investor or the tourist sees one or several objects, but by no means a territory (country, region) as a whole with all its advantages, amenities, possibilities and potential.
Place marketing assumes its development as unified investment or tourist object, with all its potential of investment, business and tourism. All attractive objects of investment and tourism, are promoted together (under an umbrella) with a territory itself, as its part. And the most important thing, they consider not only tangible assets (bowels, combines and sports complexes and other industrial and residential funds), but also intangible assets - personnel potential, advantageous geographical location, unique climatic features, mentality, rich historical heritage, varied and original cuisine, language, interesting traditions and customs and so on. Investors, tourists and business see the whole territory as single unique living organism where it is possible to invest in and to spend time with interest. In the set of all these constituents the territory takes definite outlines clear for target audience, i.e. an image, and so country brand as a whole. Thus, brand of places merges in an integral image - country brand. And the country brand can be used successfully in development of the whole territory and its tourist places in particular.
What to begin brand creation with? Many people reduce everything to draw a logo and to think up a slogan for a region. The falsity of such an approach was proved by well-known scientists Simon Anholt, Philip Kotler, Donald Haider, Irving Rein who have brought an essential contribution to the solution of a problem of study of places branding. As far back as in 1993 since publication of the book "Marketing Places: Attracting Investment, Industry, and Tourism to Cities, States, and Nations" by D. Haider, Ph. Kotler and I. Rein there has been a concept, that in the modern world citizens become consumers, and territories (cities, regions and countries) - products . In 2002 S. Anholt, one of leading world experts in branding area, has used "places branding" phrase as a term for the first time. According to Anholt's theory (hexagon), there are six elements of a modern pace brand: tourism, export brands, policy, business and investments, culture, people [4-5]. Only on the basis of an optimum combination of all hexagon corners it is possible to become successful in branding of country territory . The "place brand" phrase that was perceived in Kazakhstan several years ago as something new, fashionable and hard to understand, nowadays becomes widely used among representatives of tourist industry and bodies of the state and regional authorities. In recent years tourist branch problems are in the focus of attention of the Government of the RK. So, in the country "Development of tourist branch of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 20112014" target program has been approved and is being carried out.
They address to branding at times not because there is urgent need in it, and according to "we want to have a brand too" principle. Hence, in our opinion, errors, disappointments and following negation of branding as a marketing tool. Here the relation to idea of brand as reflexion of ambitions and aspiration to bombast manifests itself. One should remember that branding is by no means reduced to the formulating of brand idea. The idea is the second step, and the first one is the marketing analysis of preferences of citizens and foreign tourists, and is also the competitive environment research. Creation of successful tourist brand is work for years ahead in an information, infrastructural and legislative area, and also in personnel training sphere. A lot of people think, that it is necessary to select such a slogan (symbol, logo, event) which will speak for itself, the rest is allegedly details, unacceptable. Even local, world famous brands, such as Oxford, New York, Paris etc., have emerged not as a result of special brand campaigns, and were naturally formed throughout centuries.
If to speak about Kazakhstan then quite often catchy slogans, as a rule, are not supported by any unique specific offer for the tourist; there is no popular, practically applicable territory image and understanding what exactly the tourist will get by visiting a positioned place and what one should expect from the given destination. Examples: "Burabay - the second Switzerland"; "Astana - heart of Kazakhstan"; "Almaty - southern capital"; "Kazakhstan - heart of Eurasia" etc. The geographical associating is good if a geographical object possesses exclusive tourist fame and clear advantages to the visitor, however if it has no unique properties and characteristics known to public at large it will be just one of many. Here it is possible to speak only about addition to a ready territory image, but not about its creation and orientation to this uniqueness. To integrate a territory into the "talked-up" routes does not always help. Because at failure of such integration - attempt to create own twin brand, as a result can turn into endless chain of very look alike museums, mosques, landscapes and finally cities (for example, cities on the Silk Way), regardless on territory of what country they are situated either in Uzbekistan or in Kazakhstan. Example of such an approach for us if not to make corresponding marketing decisions, there even can be such an international project of Turkic languages countries on creation of mutual "Modern Silk way" project where Kazakhstan will become a coordinator .
Traditionally the state occupies itself with the problem of formation of national image, nation-wide brand in all countries of the world. Experts agree about opinion, that always the customer and the initiator of new national idea in Kazakhstan is ambitious and charismatic leader being in power since the first days of independence of Kazakhstan - the President of Republic - the Leader of the nation N.A.Nazarbaev. Many of known events of universal importance took place in Kazakhstan mostly thanks to the main newsmaker of the country Nazarbaev N.A., to his exclusive gift to put forward creative and ambitious ideas in creation and realisation of event measures, in working out of strategic programs on development of either aspects of the state. So, the President of Kazakhstan is sure, that in the economic aspect we may become the bridge connecting advanced economies of the European Union (on the one hand), and dynamical fast-growing economies of East, Southeast and South Asia (on the other hand). If to look at it more broadly, then he as the advocate Eurasianism, has made to all CIS countries the unique offer - to create large economic area in the centre of Eurasia as area of mutual development embodied in the form of the Euroasian Economic Union (EAEU). Therefore it is no coincidence that national brand promotion becomes an economic direction. As the beginning of the given campaign was the message of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan of N. Nazarbaev to the people of Kazakhstan in 2006 called "Strategy of Kazakhstan entry among 50 most competitive countries of the world". The given message had program nature for the whole PR-strategy of Kazakhstan in an economic direction and in it key priorities of positioning of Kazakhstan in the world market are sorted out [8-9]. They were continued and corroborated in the subsequent annual messages of the President of the country to the Kazakhstan people (and to the world as a whole), in particular in 2013 and 2014.
So in the state policy the basic value has developed - to play the important role in social and political events of the Euroasian area. Kazakhstan, due to its geographical position - on Europe and Asia junction, is some kind of crossroad of the worlds, combining cultural values of these parts of the world within itself. In Kazakhstan two world religions - Islam and Christianity became closely intertwined, more than 100 nationalities live well. The strategic transport ways lay across the country territory connecting Asia with Europe, Russia with the countries of the Central Asia. And accordingly through Kazakhstan "path" of migration flows bearing within a part of culture of various people and settling in this country in some way or another (the Silk Way continues) was made. The Kazakh people themselves nowadays absorb the best values of the western culture. Especially it is pronouncedly remarked among inhabitants of cities and youth, its wishes to accept and live according to the values of the West - freedom and emancipation. Thereby the Kazakh people, its majority still remaining in eastern mentality without losing contact with origins, with collectivism and unity of the East (China, Korea, Malaysia, Japan), also want to live according to the best European values.
Country image, by definition of the World Tourism organisation, is a set of emotional and rational ideas following from comparison of all country signs, one's own experience and rumors influencing creation of a certain image. All listed factors allow, at the mention of the name, at once to make the whole chain of associations in relation to the given country. How to ensure a positive country image? Opinions of politicians are not much different in this respect. The president of Kazakhstan N.Nazarbaev as, the leader of one of the independent countries appeared not so long ago on a world map, has defined following major factors of his republic appeal: political stability, friendly relations with neighbours, high degree of market economy development together with efficient state regulation.
Thus, the positive authority of Kazakhstan and in particular its leader - the President of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbaev, on the one hand, deserves working out and creation of brand corresponding to high country authority on a global scene and to a worthy standard of living of Kazakhstan citizens. On the other hand there is an urgent need in it for creation of an image of appeal of the country and its people for visitors, tourists and all world community.
Adoption and carrying out of the long-term national "Brand of Kazakhstan" program will help not only to form recognizable positive image of the country in the world, but also will promote emergence of Kazakhstani national identity, mutual sense of goal and national pride that will help to unite Kazakhstan round the single national idea - economic country development (entry of Kazakhstan in among 30 developed countries of the world). As we have already mentioned, this process is very long and it is not limited by some timeframe to achieve the aim. Therefore image formation should be carried out by sequence of continuous events directed on its improvement and positioning of the country in the world.
Preparation and carrying out of two important international events - the Winter University Games in Almaty and EXPO - 2017 "Energy of the future" exhibition may become the important events favouring creation and positioning of brand of Kazakhstan. They will be a starting point which will allow Kazakhstan to promote its brand and to form image not only as the country being in the heart of Eurasia, and as an innovative and ambitious country constantly aspiring to adoption of new technologies, the country with strong scientific potential directed in the future (Nazarbaev university and colleges of world level in Astana and Almaty, Nazarbaev intellectual schools all over the country, etc.); the country where there are all conditions for those who is ready to invest capital which will be reliably protected and will work for the mutual benefit.
Germany experience to carry out image campaigns Creation of country brand - cause of all its inhabitants, beginning from the head of state and concluding with an average citizen. In our opinion, the experience of Germany can be as an example how to carry out image campaigns on the eve of forthcoming significant world events in Kazakhstan in 2017.
It is well known that in German culture soccer occupies a special niche and is a part of a daily life of people. Therefore among huge number of campaigns directed on formation of Germany image none of them cannot be compared with campaign to strengthen the national brand that begun in 2004 within the frameworks of preparation for World Cup 2006.
Everything has begun with awareness by the higher political persons of Germany, that the country is getting the negative image owing to increase of unemployment rate and slow rates of economic growth. To change the situation which threatened outflow of highly skilled specialists and decline of macroeconomic indicators, they required campaign that would show Germany as innovative and ambitious country where there were all conditions for life and capital investments.
For the first time the central idea of future image campaign was voiced during an inaugural speech of the President of Federative Republic of Germany Horst K?hler who mentioned that Germany - Land of Ideas, encouraging experiments and inquisitiveness; courage, creativity and wish to create something new, without forgetting former achievements. Potentially considerable social and economic effect from planned image events has led to consolidation of the state and society under patronage of the President of Germany . Official campaign sponsors were the Government of Germany represented by the Ministry of Economy and Technologies, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Education and Research, and also the Federal Union of the German Industry (BDI). The initiative to change Germany image caused state-private partnership concerning PR measures. To coordinate and carry out measures the coalition of the largest companies of the country created "FC Deutschland" legal person composed of 23 companies including world famous - Deutsche Bank, Audi, T-mobile, Lufthansa. The estimated image campaign budget was €20 million, of which 10 million was given by the federal government and 10 million - BDI . Campaign working out has begun in 2004, and in the middle of 2005 (on June, 14) Minister for Internal Affairs Otto Schily and BDI vicepresident made presentation of "Germany - Land of Ideas" campaign. The key idea of the given image campaign, according to developers' opinion - the given phrase combining positive features of Germany within the country and abroad: science and culture nation, the country of poets and thinkers, innovation products with "made in Germany" brand. The central idea embodies the quality Germany is valued for all over the world: inventiveness and creative passion, perfect quality.
To inform address groups of the central idea they began to carry out five developed projects mainly in 2004 due to the fact that Germany got the right to hold the World Cup. They considered that sporting event of such kind draws a huge public response, attracts media attention, promotes inflow of tourists and enables the country to show its achievements.
On the threshold of 2006 image campaign launch in a number of large cities of the world - in the USA, in France, in the Great Britain, in Japan - they installed TV screens showing shots from "Germany - Land of ideas" film specially prepared for this instance. To provide media support of special five projects in August 2005 on http://www.land-of-ideas.org/ campaign site they created "Media Service" which was unique information resource for 15 thousand journalists who were going to visit Germany in 2006 to cover the World Cup. The given resource provided audio/video/text data on Germany and the image campaign; on possibility to establish various contacts; data where matches take place and any information about Germany, selected taking into account interests and country of person interested.
In 2005 there were large image events, mostly directed on work with mass media to inform address groups of the information on the campaign beginning which helped to understand their point more deeply. We believe they are very important for understanding of their orientation and we give them in chronological order:
- - June, 14, 2005 "Germany - Land of Ideas" campaign and its six projects were presented.
- - August, 26, 2005 "Germany - Land of Ideas" campaign becomes the official partner of the 2006 FEI World Equestrian Games.
- - September, 13, 2005 the international presentation of the campaign and the second project "Welcome to Germany - Land of Ideas".
- - October, 3, 2005 on Germany Unity Day (Tag der Deutschen Einheit) Brandenburg becomes a partner of the campaign and on the same day "Germany - Land of Ideas" campaign fan club was formed. The fan club aims to encourage a sense of belonging of people to Germany and the carried out campaign, and also to favour meetings of people who are optimistic, love their country and aim for the future.
- - October, 27, 2005 organizers of the campaign declared there would be tour from November, 1st till December, 31st through 12 cities where matches would take place. The tour purpose - to give the chance to people to feel involved in the World Cup organisation. During visiting of cities they plan to hold sporting events and games, and also enroll new fan club members.
- - December, 5, 2005 the announcement of 365 participants of the third project "365 Landmarks in Land of Ideas".
- - December, 6, 2005 the international presentation of media service for journalists on a campaign site where till 2006 spring they planned to prepare collections of materials for journalists from 40 countries and to grant access to 1000 articles and photos too.
- - December, 22, 2005 presentation of prototypes of sculptures for "Walk of Ideas" project.
- - December, 29, 2005 opening of the World Cup year in Germany. On the square in front of the Brandenburg gates in Berlin representatives of each of the countries, taking part in the World Cup, are welcomed by the Minister for Internal Affairs of the Federative Republic of Germany and the mayor of Berlin.
The opening ceremony of the World Cup year "Welcome to Germany - Land of Ideas" was broadcast on 300 channels.
Events within image campaign frameworks that had taken place from June 2005 till January 2006 resulted in unprecedented response of mass media. For the given period in print media, on TV and on the Internet there had emerged about 7143 messages about the campaign which reached about 471 million people. About 40 thousand people became the fan club members, about 55 thousand copies of the guide to the Land of Ideas. About thousand international journalists made use of materials of "MediaService" information resource on the campaign site
In 2006 they began to carry out five main projects on this basis:
- project: "Welcome to Germany - Land of Ideas". Project realisation has begun on October 3, 2005 on Germany Unity Day. 226 embassies and consulates received collections of materials about Germany and the image campaign to distribute among visitors; all visitors of the country were welcomed at the airports, cities and stations. There was "Germany - Land of Ideas" campaign presentation during all celebrations in honour of Germany Unity in embassies.
- project: "365 Landmarks in the Land of Ideas". Project realisation has begun in 2005. Every year in Germany there is national competition among companies, research, cultural and fine arts institutes. The jury consisting of 18 persons chooses 365 innovative ideas which will be presented every day from January 1 till December 31. After all ideas have been presented winners in 7 categories are chosen. (Competition of 365 winners began to be held annually since then, it attracts a lot of public attention as participants present their ideas in all corners of Germany). The monthly campaign newsletter regularly covers competition events. Following the results of the competition they publish a book containing data about all winners that allows potential investors to familiarise with their ideas.
- project: "Walk of Ideas". The project was carried out from March till May 2005. During this time in different areas of Berlin they installed six huge sculptures, symbolising wealth of ideas and inventive spirit of Germany. Sculptures reflect inventions and discoveries of the German people that continue to produce considerable effect on science, culture and technologies. Installation of each figure was accompanied by mass media attention mainly owing to the project sum (to create each sculpture they spent from 300 till 350 tsd. euros) and due to their installation in the most populous city places.
"Innovative football boots" was the first sculpture to be installed, reflecting the fact that the first football boots, allowing standing firmly on a wet and swampy football pitch brought to the victory of Germany in the World Cup in 1954, had been created by German Adi Dassler, who established Adidas company.
The second sculpture in the form of a huge pill is called "Milestones in medicine". It tells that the most popular analgesic pill in the world was invented in Germany by Bayer company; German researchers Felix Hoffmann, Robert Koch, Emil von Behring, Paul Ehrlich and Gerhard Domagk contributed a lot to medicine development; cardiac catheter and X-ray apparatus were created in Germany. And nowadays German scientists develop about 300 new medicines, including anticancer vaccine, one for treatment of heart beats, diabetes and Alzheimer's disease.
The third sculpture - "Automobile" was installed near the Brandenburg gates. It reflects successes of Germany automobile production: the whole world uses motors named in honour of Germans Otto and Diesel; such German makes as Audi, BMW, Mercedes-Benz, Opel, Porsche and Volkswagen enjoy wide popularity; thanks to Germany cars got air bags, ABS, ESP, four- wheel drive, etc.
The fourth sculpture - "Modern printing", reflecting the fact that due to the printing press invention by Gutenberg mass distribution of the first best seller the Bible became possible that in turn accelerated processes of the Reformation and the Enlightenment. Germany gave to the world great writers and thinkers - Goethe, Schiller, Mann, Grimm Brothers, etc.
The fifth sculpture - "Musical masterpieces", emphasizes huge contribution of German composers to creation of world famous music masterpieces - Mendelssohn's Wedding March, Beethoven's symphonies, Schumann's etudes, Bach's toccatas and Wagner's "Flight of Valkyrie" .
The last sculpture - "Relativity theory" tells about creation by German Albert Einstein of the relativity theory that led to development of quantum mechanics and lasers Theodor H?nsch who in 2005 received the Nobel Prize in Physics.
"Walk of Ideas" project was one of the most successful one in the image campaign since creatively executed sculptures drew huge attention of journalists, population and tourists.
- project: "100 Masterminds of Tomorrow" became a logical conclusion of "Walk of Ideas". Specially formed jury selected 100 persons who got considerable results in economics, science, art, etc. Within the frameworks of the given project they organized an exhibition where there were full-length photos biography and ideas of the selected 100 people. These people will have to form the future of Germany based on successes of past generations shown in the form of sculptures on "Walk of Ideas".
- project: investment image promotion. Germany Trade and Invest and "Germany - Land of Ideas" campaign developed "Invest into Germany - Land of Ideas" program which goal - to improve Germany image as an ideal place to do business, using emotional address to potential investors. The single central idea for all five projects meant to convince investors that all put forward ideas are successfully implemented in Germany.
5 project also includes 10 subprojects, beginning from distribution of information booklets about Germany investment possibilities, conducting forums and concluding with one of the most unusual advertising campaigns with participation of German model Claudia Schiffer. The ad campaign consisted in putting up 11 posters with the model in the financial centres of London, Tokyo, New York. The first posters were displayed in London from June 5 till July 2, 2006, in Tokyo posters were displayed from June 26 till July 9. The campaign ended in New York where from 1 till 30 July at the Big Central Stadium 80 posters were put up. Before posters were put up press conferences were held in German embassies in each of the cities. The ad campaign was a great success which was proved by placing of one of posters with Claudia Schiffer in the Advertising Museum in Paris.
Advertising campaign singularity consisted in that that posters appealed not to reason of potential investors, and to their emotions and sexual instincts. Each poster slogan was deliberately ambiguous because of the model covered only with the flag of Germany. For each city they selected different posters: more conservative ones for London and Tokyo, and with sexual context for New York.
Other slogans on this poster: "Follow your instincts. Invest in Germany"; "Invest in Germany, boys"; "Get your hands on a German supermodel". Another slogan on a poster for Grand Central Station (New York): "Grand ideas in a central location".
The six projects of the campaign considered above were carried out in logic sequence to achieve the largest effect. At first by means of "Media Service" project they created basis for coverage of the campaign and all aspects of Germany life in the media. The fan club formation and 365 landmarks in land of ideas competition allowed to involve the population in the campaign that in turn provided support to campaign events within the country. Creation of sculptures attracted a large number of tourists and attention of the media on the eve of the World Cup carrying out. Since March, 2006 the sculptures and the 100 masterminds of the country exhibition reflected a huge scientific heritage and potential of the country. After the demonstrated wealth of ideas its logical conclusion was the advertising campaign calling on the eve of the World Cup to visit Germany and to make investments.
The image campaign results:
- - the most popular in history of Germany image campaign attracted the audience of over 3,5 bln. people;
- as of July 14, 2006 in Germany there appeared about 14200 articles regarding the campaign;
- the campaign initially planned to be over in the end of 2006, was prolonged till 2010;
- - 22 large German companies became partners of the campaign (on the site in "Partners" section one can see innovative achievements and workings out of each of them);
- - journalists mentioned, that after the World Cup end there were two winners - Italy and Germany as Germany was able to improve its image both within the country and abroad;
- - according to researches after carrying out of the campaign the majority of Germans perceived their country as progressive, cosmopolitan, inventive and innovative.
From experience of carrying out of the campaign to strengthen the image of Germany it is possible to make following conclusions:
- Carrying out of image improvement campaign is better to time to large international event which will automatically draw mass media attention.
- Only joint actions of a society and the state will be able to provide campaign with resources and population support.
- Constant presence of the higher officials of the state at the key events ensures the media attention and emphasizes true interest of the state in solving the problem.
- Provision of mass media with any social, economic, cultural information ensures wider distribution of the central campaign idea.
- At image improvement campaign its every detail should act to inform address groups about the key idea (projects showed innovationability, scientific potential and uniqueness of Germany)
- Campaign should not be sporadic - it is necessary to create information occasions all the time.
- The unconventional approach to boring topics - the campaign guarantee of success (posters with model Claudia Schiffer).
Germany image strengthening campaign was integrated organisation of a large number of events that touched on about 3,5 bln. people.
- Possibilities and prospects of Kazakhstan national branding
The German image campaign experience described above may be used by Kazakhstan for working out of its own image campaign. Kazakhstan has time and possibility to do corresponding work before carrying out of 2017 University Games and EXPO 2017 which will ensure attention from mass media, inflow of tourists from all over the world. Involving private sector in image campaign will favour civil society activization and will unite the country. Thus, Kazakhstan may use all those tools which allowed Germany to score success: to involve young scientists, to tell about conducted workings out dealing with exhibition topics, to regularly give information on current events to the media, to create special body which would be engaged in solution of image problems, to use famous people for an advertising campaign.
Concerning our country "Kazakhstan - heart of Eurasia" project, put forward as image generating idea, may provide ample opportunities for realisation of dozens of new subprojects, covering all regions, cities and population strata. And these projects may be as innovative (containing the key idea of the EXPO - 2017 "Energy of the future"), as historical and cultural. 2017 Winter University Games with "Spread your wings" slogan will present to the world Kazakhstan as the country with athletic, creative young people directed to scientific knowledge. Along with today's innovations, it is appropriate to remind of those innovations that ancestors who lived in ancient Steppe of Kazakhstan gave to world civilisation. On the one hand, one can remember the contribution to civilisation development made by Kazakh ancestors (horse domestication, invention of boots, breeches, saddle, stirrups, horse harness, ancient monuments of writing, yurta, urban civilisation on Syr-Darya banks, musical instruments of Desht-i-Kypchak steppe - kobyz and dombra, teacher of mankind Abu Nasr al-Farabi, the second Mecca of the Islamic world - Turkestan with Hodzha Ahmet Yassaui mausoleum, Saks barrows and "Golden Warrior", Berelsky barrows, khan headquarters in Burabay, etc.) It will remind tourists, that where present Astana is located once there was an ancient steppe settlement "Bozok" (Blue Arrow) where headquarters of Kypchak khans was situated. Here it cries out for the analogy to the monuments of innovative football boots, printing, etc. of "Walk of Ideas" in the capital of Germany.
The exhibition will acquaint the world with multinational culture, ancient history, art, traditions and hospitality of Kazakhstani people, will increase recognizability and tourist appeal of Kazakhstan in the world community.
Result of carrying out of world exhibitions is expansion of the international, economic, political, cultural and scientific contacts. Carrying out of "Expo 2017" - the big step toward establishment of Kazakhstan as international exhibition and information and presentation platform. For EXPO 2017 not only in Astana, but also in different regions of the country they will prepare and will construct for attractive tourists objects
For example, in Akmolinsk oblast one will construct "Ethnoaul" cultural and tourist complex surrounded by an eco settlement consisting of 100 dwellings. During construction they will use only ecologically clean construction materials and "green" technologies - everything according to "Energy of the future" EXPO theme . It is interesting, that during the EXPO Kazakhstan it is planned to promote one of key ideas of the President of the country N. Nazarbaev about transition to "green economy". He often says that transition process to environment-friendly economy will be accompanied by serious changes in a number of branches, it will generate new industry and will create qualitative workplaces. And this is idea for an exhibition which will draw hundreds of thousands tourists to visit it, specially constructed objects or those that are already in operation on industrial scale in different regions of the country (wind generators, large and small hydroelectric power plants in Almaty and East Kazakhstan oblasts, solar batteries in southern regions, etc.) Pride that such a grand event takes place on Kazakhstan soil, will produce patriotic sentiments upsurge of the country citizens.
To hold the Winter University Games in Almaty in 2017 is ideal possibility in order to show to the world amenities of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Sunkar eyas has become the mascot of the University Games. "Free and strong indigenous inhabitant of Kazakh steppes, it always defeats its enemies, often surpassing it by their sizes", - it is like this that developers positioned their eyas. The falcon quite corresponds to the Kazakh people spirit. The mascot to disclose the key concept of "Spread your wings!" slogan, is shown in the form of stylized wings.
It is necessary to consider for attraction of tourists that factor too that from organisation and carrying out level (brightness, spectacularity and hospitality) of the University Games which will take place during the winter period, on the eve of EXPO 2017. Organizers of the winter games should make so that they ensure full house of tourists at the second visit of the country during the summer period.
Each city of Kazakhstan may contribute its mite to formation of image and national brand promotion, proceeding from its peculiarities and achievement of today (Baikonur - space harbour, Karaganda - industry centre and scientific intelligentsia city, Aktau - city of oil industry workers and the centre of ancient Mangyshlak, Shymkent, Taraz - cities on the ancient Silk way, Kurchatov - scientific centre of nuclear test on the soil of Kazakhs, channel in Sary-Arka steppe "Irtysh- Karaganda" and so on). In Astana there is already a realised project like "Walks of Ideas in Germany" in the form of an ethno-memorial complex "Map of Kazakhstan - Atameken" or "Kazakhstan in miniature". Near it there may be sculptural compositions and operating copies of objects devoted to innovative ideas, arisen on the Kazakh soil at the dawn of a human civilisation (domesticated horses, bullock cart, yurta, breeches, saddle, stirrups etc.). Ethnoauls and agrotourist complexes may and should be created also around such cities as Kokshetau, Karaganda and Pavlodar. They will become centres to demonstrate and hold various events according to national traditions within reach of Astana. It is necessary to note, what even without state support some entrepreneurs began to create agro - and ethnotourist objects in the mentioned cities. For example, 5 km from Karaganda "Kamila" farm by itself and using its own means began to create an agrotourist complex. Some scientists and students of Karaganda Economical University of Kazpotrebsoyuz were taking an active part in designing of the given complex. The complex includes riding hall and stables, falcon, quail and pheasant farms, stocked pond and a pond for beach rest, a cafe building, a complex of guest cabins with all conveniences, racecourse, model farms for keeping of cows, sheep, goats, camels and other animals. They will serve for child-rearing of townspeople and will teach to look after "their own" animals (each child will have an interim certificate on right of possession of a kid, a lamb, a chicken and so on). Near farms there will be beds for cultivation of vegetables, berries, fruit trees will be planted. They also become available to visitors where right from a bed parents with children can see and learn how they grow, gather a bunch of radishes, of spring onions, dill, and other garden-stuff, pick berries and fruit. Wind-generated installations will give the possibility to satisfy partly the complex need in the electric power.
By the time of carrying out of the EXPO - 2017 at a racecource championship of teams of the country regions and ones from abroad for such games as "Kokpar", "Alaman baiga", "Kyz kuu", and also for individual ones as "Zhamby atu (sadak tartu)", "Oramal ilu" trick riding, "Tal shabu", "Falconry", etc. May take place. Such an approach organised in each of the regions, along with well planned marketing strategy will draw attention of tourists and will give a charge for national spirit upsurge of the people of Kazakhstan. "Kamila" agrotourcomplex project provides for possibility to carry out, near "Ethnoaul" by the population request, national weddings, solemn events - "as beru" initiation, "Kyz uzatu" (decorated horse wagons - in summer, in winter - troika sleigh) etc. Unlike exhibition model complexes of temporary nature, the given complex is designed as actually functioning and where there is an actual life with all attributes during whole-year. Such complexes, with support from the state in the form of loans and preferences, become considerable contribution to international image strengthening and to entry of Kazakhstan into 30 most developed countries.
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