The questions of training and methodological content filling by means of the software modules of the Virtual University. Also had reviewed types of computer training programs and units. Feature of the working unit (unit) is a tutorial overview nature of the presentation, which allows to you to navigate the main concepts and issues, shows the main trends in the development of science. Educational products or methodical means logical complement each other; reinforce the didactic function of discipline.
Let us consider the questions of filling the program modules of the virtual university with teaching methodological tools. Here are the main educational and methodological tools used in the content, as well as the types of computer training programs:
A working module textbook (a unit). A unit is developed on the base of each module. On average for each academic period, each student is given 25-27 units and methodological guidelines for using a working module textbook.
All units have the same structure, that makes it possible to orientate quickly in a new material for a student when he begins studying the next unit. A working module textbook includes course syllabus, teaching syllabus, the list of primary and secondary materials, scientific or thematic overview of educational material, a glossary, exercises for self-study, the skills training, information for the test tasks.
The peculiarity of a unit is a review nature of the information presentation, that allows to orientate in the basic concepts and issues, it proves the main trends in the development of science.
Educational products or methodical means logically supplement each other, they intensify the didactic functions of an academic subject.
The general quantity of the materials of the virtual university video library should be more than 2000 items of educational products. Among of which there should be video lectures (review and modular lectures), satellite television lectures, author's lecture courses , slide lectures for reading and writing. The lectures should be delivered by the best doctors and professors from different cities and countries, professional directors should be involved. The library fund should be regularly replenished. All these training instructions are in analog and digital recording and help to increase the visibility of the content of the teaching material for a module or its certain record.
Computer training programs. At the University (at the virtual one) there should be more than 300 computer training programs for all academic subjects. Working with such programs is aimed at enhancing the student mental actions, forming and retaining the professional skills.
Types of computer training programs :
- • Super Tutor (ST) contains all necessary information on schemes of the course, glossary, training, testing;
- • Professional Tutor (PТ) trains working with professional small volume programs on student manuals;
- • I - tutor (IТ, imitating) imitates the work with professional volume computer programs;
- • R - tutor (RT, research) is a research program for the development of skills and abilities of searching the programs ;
- • Complay (a computer game) is a playing or roleplaying program, a dip to the business atmosphere and a possibility to try on any role;
- • Rewrd is a digital linguistic program.
The use of computer training programs is based on clear algorithms that surely include feedback. Analyzing training programs by Edrissov A.T. and Antonov M.A. they are classified as follows :
- • Computer textbook is a program methodological complex that connects the properties of one textbook, reference book, taskbook and laboratory practical work;
- • Subject-Oriented Environment (microcosms, simulators, training packages) is a program training package that allows to operate with the objects of a certain class being guided by the methodological guidelines or it makes the study; these simulation programs make it possible for a student to "try on the role" of a head of a company, bank, institution.
- • Laboratory practical work serves for observing the study objects of personal aspects, for using these objects in practice ;
- • The simulator is used to process and retain technical skills of solving problems;
- • Control programs are designed for the assessment of the knowledge quality;
- • Referral databases for educational purposes are aimed for the storage and presentation of various information; they are characterized by a hierarchical organization of the material, a quick search of information by various characteristics or by the context.
The usual programs are one of the types of the students independent work.
Collective training is an audience group task aimed at actualization and practicing of the professional skills and abilities, and it allows a student to unleash his creativity in an interactive form. The classes are also organized and conducted in accordance with the developed scenarios. The developers of the scenarios are approved and recommended for publication and implementation of the learning process by the scientific and methodological board. Methodological guidelines for conducting a collective training contain the objectives or the tasks of a given lesson, handouts, recommendations for organizing and conducting a class. Depending on the scenario of a particular academic subject and a type of classes different types of collective training are applied .
Assessment system of academic progress of a student. The constant control and quality evaluation of each unit learning, in accordance with the examples, is also a specific peculiarity of this technology. The assessment system is divided into a modular, current and final one. A student is allowed to the current assessment of academic progress of a subject only after he has passed all stages and results of training (homework, tests of each unit, projects etc.) included into the norm complete set. The control of each student academic progress of all educational procedures is carried out with the help of special computer program. The students are allowed to the final assessment as soon as the full current assessment on all subjects of the curriculum has been performed .At the end of each unit a modular testing is held.
Academic mobility of the students is carried out through a variety of relations between domestic and foreign universities and educational centers as well. Under the contract, students even can defend their thesis and get personal certificates and diplomas not only in an appointed educational institutions but also in other universities.
High technology of the organization of educational process requires the strict maintenance of all its elements, each of which is clearly consistent with the entire chain of the educational process . Under the circumstances of the continued improvement of learning technologies, the special measures to accelerate the adaptation of teachers to the specifics of virtual training are required. The functions of teachers in comparison with the traditional system of learning are diversified, in terms of modern technology where a creative approach of a teacher to the professional activity is required .
Summarizing the aforesaid let us note the characteristic features of the virtual education:
Flexibility: students, auditors being educated virtually generally do not attend regular classes, but they choose themselves more convenient time and more convenient place for studying.
Modularity: the virtual education programs are based on the modular principle, each separate course creates a holistic view of a separate subject field, that allows to form the curriculum from a set of independent courses modules that corresponds to individual or group needs.
Parallelism: training is carried out simultaneously with the professional activity (or with training of another course), i.e. without discontinuing work or other activity.
A large audience: it's simultaneous access to many sources of training information of a large number of students, auditors, communication via the telecommunications network between students and between students and teachers.
Effectivity: The effective use of training areas and facilities, concentrated and unified view of information, the use and development of computer simulation should lead to lower costs for the training of specialists.
Technological effectiveness: it's the use in the educational process of new information technology advances that help a person to enter into the global information space.
Social equality: equal educational opportunities, regardless of the place of residence, health and social status.
Internationality: an opportunity to be educated in the educational institutions of foreign countries, without leaving the country, and an opportunity to provide educational services to foreign citizens and compatriots who live abroad.
A new role of a teacher: virtual education expands and updates the role of a teacher, makes him a tutor and consultant who must coordinate the learning process, continually improve those courses that he teaches, increase creativity and skills in accordance with the innovations.
Positive influence on a student (an auditor): increasing of creative and intellectual potential of a person who is educated virtually through selforganization, a desire for knowledge of using modern information and communication technologies, an ability to make their own responsible decisions.
Quality: The quality of virtual education is not inferior to any other form of education as for the preparation of didactic means the best teaching staff is involved and the most modern teaching methodological materials are used; It's assumed to use a specialized quality control of virtual education for its compliance with the educational standards.
The main tasks of virtual education are:
- • The formation of normative and legal, organizational, educational and methodological, information and telecommunications, logistic, human, economic and financial support, the introduction and development of both virtual and distance learning on individual courses or a block of courses;
- • The organization and development of virtual education on different directions of the professional training: humanitarian, natural, economic, military, agricultural, etc.
- • The introduction of the technologies of virtual learning at all levels (higher, postgraduate) and training on the individual courses or a block of courses;
- • Providing the professional training and psychological support for socially disadvantaged groups: unemployed or disabled, prisoners, military conscripts, etc. with the help of virtual learning;
- • Providing professional orientation and selfdetermination for the specialists who are studying;
- • Using the technologies of virtual training for retraining the personnel of customs and tax services, financial and banking system, professors of the institutions of higher education, etc.
- • Creating of the State Library of virtual courses (normative disciplines)
- • The integration of virtual education into the world system of perfect education.
The organizational structure combines all components of virtual education and it is based on the following components;
- • Organizational and managerial;
- • Normative and legal;
- • Training and methodological;
- • Informational and telecommunications;
- • Economic and financial;
The organizational structure ensures;
- • The Preparation of the projects of normative and legal documents of virtual education;
- • The coordination of the development and implementation of virtual learning and curriculum;
- • The development of virtual courses in accordance with the international standards of virtual education;
- • The coordination of the activities of virtual education centers on the interaction with regional and provincial telecommunications centers;
- • The development and implementation of the most effective information and training program means;
- • The creation of a distributed information structure of virtual education, as well as a system of administration and control of knowledge;
- • The development of programs, training and retraining of staff for virtual education;
- • The development of a system of information and analytical support of virtual education including marketing research and advertising activities;
Regional centers of virtual education. They are created on the basis of those higher educational institutions, which are regional centers of the telecommunications network of science and education. They make it possible to use the telecommunications networks and take a part:
- • In the improvement and development of the telecommunications infrastructure for the implementation of the technology of virtual education;
- • In the preparation of the projects of normative and legal documents of virtual education;
- • In the development and implementation of technologies of virtual learning and curriculum;
- • In the development and implementation of the most effective information and training program means;
- • In the creation of the distributed information structure of virtual education;
- • In the preparation of the staff of virtual education;
- • In the creation of the state library of virtual courses;
Regional centers can be also basic centers on the directions of professional training.
The basic centers of virtual education on the directions of professional training are created on the basis of the higher educational institutions that have outstanding educational methodological quality studies for one or more directions of the professional training; they make a considerable contribution to the development and implementation of the technologies of virtual learning and correspondingly prepared staff.
- • The development of the virtual courses on the certain directions of the professional training;
- • The introduction of virtual education on corresponding directions of the professional training;
They take a part:
- • In the preparation of the projects of normative and legal documents of virtual education;
- • In the development of the teaching methods for different directions of training the specialists;
- • In the development of recommendations regarding to the implementation of information technology and virtual courses in different forms of learning;
- • In the creation of a system of administration and control of knowledge;
- • In the creation of the state library of virtual courses;
Local centers of virtual learning. They are created on the basis of the higher education institutions having access to telecommunications system, modern computer platform, and trained staff.
Stages of creation and development of virtual education.
The creation of basic foundations of the system of virtual education can be realized in the following stages
The first stage:
- • Creation of the organizational structure of virtual education;
- • Development of legal and regulatory foundations and standards of virtual education;
- • Monitoring and study of the conditions of the implementation of virtual education and optimization of this process;
- • Publication of the material-technical base of regional and local centers of virtual education;
- • Creating the initial fund of virtual courses and providing the experiential learning;
- • Development of the financing basis of virtual education;
- • Implementation of pilot drafts of introducing the virtual education;
The second stage
- • Full-scale development and introduction of virtual education as a form of learning;
- • Introduction of the system of multi-channel financing legal and physical persons of the virtual education;
- • Development and introduction of the system of benefits of using computer networks and telecommunications infrastructure for the structural units of virtual education ;
- • Introduction of licensing, certification and accreditation of the institutions of virtual education .
Now let's consider the approaches to the development of information and telecommunication resources, as well as the results of their implementation, that provide the verbal task solution of creating the foundations of a unified information space. The telecommunications basis that provides interaction and remote access to the information resources may be a segment of scientifically generated computer network with gateways to all commercial networks and managed with the use of the means of specially developed system of integrated network management. This system may include five interrelated subsystems for solving specific tasks, among which are:
- • Configuration Management;
- • Security Management;
- • Fault Management;
- • Accounting of using resources;
- • Performance management.
Backbone core here is a set of databases that contain complete information about all aspects of the network functioning, that makes it possible for an administrator to obtain the necessary information at any time. Within this segment, you can create an information portal as well as a web portal that provides in the aggregate the access to the basic information resources.
Thus one of the most representative scientific and educational information resources available in network can be an electronic library (Automated Library Information System ALIS) in databases of which both bibliographic descriptions of documents library fund and their full-text electronic copies can accumulate .
The library is also considered as one of the key elements of the system of virtual learning, that provides a quick access to necessary teaching methodological materials from the remote workplaces. In general the ALIS manages the process of formation of the library fund through the creation and usage of the search images of documents: analysis of the fund structure; determining the presence of teaching methodological materials that are necessary for the successful conducting of learning activity; implementation of the selection of documents in accordance with the permanent and one-time requests of users in the modes of selective information distribution and retrospective search; preparation of various lists and literature indexes, as well as the necessary forms of accounting documents; simple and convenient access to the information for different categories of users, including from the remote workplaces; interoperability with other similar systems via the Internet; creation of the corporative ALIS city on its base.
- GOST-19. Unified system software documentation. UDC 651.7/. 78: 681.3.06: 002: 006.354. The Group Making The USSR.
- GOST-34. Automated system of UDC 668.012.011.56: 066.354. A Group Of P87.
- Lapsheva E.E., Fedorova A. Organization of distance training of specialists in the field of Informatics and programming. Psychological-pedagogical magazine Gaudeamus. 2012. vol.2, no.20, p.40-43
- Tolstobrov A.P. University management information systems Development and integration. - URL: http://do.gendocs.ru/docs/index-html 53927 (date: 11/26/2012)