The history of development of translation theory as a science in Kazakhstan

The issue of translation has always been critical in Kazakhstan. During its long time of development it was subject to a number of difficulties and changes in different period of time. Taking look at its history it is obvious that one of the most important contributions made was during the connection of Russia and Kazakhstan. At this time the necessity to introduce Kazakh people with Russian literature and then provide them with governmental orders and norms gave rise to the development of Kazakh translation. This epoch was also prominent for the artistic translation of distinguished writers that still take the most important place in Kazakh literature. However, only during the Soviet Union scientific researches have been worked out where some aspects of translation theory were covered. Considering contemporary time the demand in translation has increased dramatically due to political and economical situation of Kazakhstan. Nowadays it is obligatory to know at least three languages Russian, Kazakh and English, however, due to all political and historical events Kazakh has lost its priority by present, and due to the increased interest in English it occurred that Kazakh-English translation has not been developed thoroughly yet. There are still a number of aspects to analyze and make research at in this sphere.

According to Language Policy of RK it is highly important to consider multinational and multiethnic cultures characterized as a material and spiritual wealth of the peoples in linguistic education. Nowadays intercultural communication is of great interest as a mixture of nationalities, cultures and languages has reached an incredible size and the issue of tolerance and respect is of great concern. To know culture and language of another nation means to represent its interests and to be a social-cultural mediator between two nations. Thus, according to Language Policy a foreign language should be learned considering socio cultural aspects of a language as a source of intercultural communication where a language is learned through culture as it is closely connected to it. The reason to develop an intercultural tolerance gave raise to creation of a multilingual society in Kazakhstan. To provide such opportunity for young people it was decided to introduce minimum three languages into educational program where Kazakh is a state language, Russian and English are languages for official communication necessary for international integration. Considering the requirements of the government and increasing interest in Kazakh language these three languages are of high importance in Kazakhstan. However, as the level of the knowledge of these languages considerably differs between Kazakhstan citizens their translation is also critical. One of the big concerns is Kazakh language as it was not well studied in translation sphere and is of high demand in the country.

According to A.Zh. Zhaksylykova [A.Zh. Zhaksylykova 2011, p. 51] researches the translation school has been developing since the Soviet Union and its power structure establishment in Kazakhstan. Kazakh translation had been created with works of literary, business and folk literature translations during the colonization of Kazakh steppes by Russia. It is one of the reasons of translation establishment in Kazakhstan. A number of scientists consider the history of translation was started in the period of Kazakhstan and Russian connection [N. Sagandykova 1996, p.123], others believe that the source of translation development begins with the discovery of Saadi translations. At the same time there are scientists stating that it was caused by the critical articles wrote by Kazakh intellectuals at the beginning of the twentieth century [K.K. Alpysbayev, G.K. Kazybek 2001, p.23].

However, it is evident that the start of Russian-Kazakh and Kazakh-Russian translation was determined in the Kazakhstan and Russia territorial connection period. At that time Russian government used religious literature to change Kazakh religion into Christianity. For this purpose not large number of Kazakh newspapers and magazines were used. The language that was translated into Kazakh was quite simple so that all citizens could clearly understand it. Translators used wellknown words that form the foundation of literary language. However the sense of the words was different from the Russian ones as they referred to orthodox religion not familiar to Kazakh. For example, in the Kazakh language of that period the word "kulshilyk etu" meant to serve someone, however, in the translated books it was understood as to pray. At this period a group of words were borrowed from Persian, Arab and then Russian languages what was caused by political and economical changes in the steppe. Most of the words were borrowed considering phonetic, morphologic rules of Kazakh. Syntactical rules of the language were also followed which made the context clear and acceptable for common people [A.S. Bazarbayeva 2004, p. 1].

One of the biggest contributions to Kazakh translation was made by Abay Kunanbayev. Being a writer, philosopher, orator, improvisator and biy Abay was the first who presented the world literature to the people translating the works of Goethe, Schiller (from Russian), Pushkin, Lermontov and Krylov. These works remains the most precious works in Kazakh literature. According to Abay researchers Abay translated more than 50 works from Russian classic literature. These are seven extracts from "Yevgeni Onegin", more than 20 poems of M.Y. Lermontov and nearly 12 fables of I.A. Krylov. The writer had been developing his translator's skills while introducing Russian culture to the Kazakh society. Such writers as A.Kunanbayev and I. Altynsarin first made a professional translation of Russian classic literature feature works into Kazakh [Z.Kh. Latypova 2007, p.14].

Thus, the period of the territorial connection of Russian and Kazakh had a great impact on translation in Kazakhstan. It was the first experience that was developed by the translation of religious literature that was spread in Kazakh newspapers and magazines. The translators of that time already followed the basic principles of translation the main aspect of which is to pass the basic meaning of text. Moreover, it has its influence on the structure and the vocabulary of the language by developing or borrowing new lexical forms. Overall, it was a great contribution to Kazakh as a language system. The researches specify that the translation of the original texts corresponded to the translated ones by means of the syntactic structure of the Kazakh language, by using common vocabulary in new meaning and by borrowing another vocabulary from other languages. Another important aspect is the development of artistic translation that can be considered as a creative work of outstanding writers of that time [A.S. Bazarbayeva 2004, p. 2]. However, another important period of Kazakh translation can be distinguished in the XX century.

As O. Aitbayev states [O. Aitbayev 1988, p. 122-138] at the beginning of the XX century translation played an important role in the development of Kazakh culture. Moreover, it made a considerable contribution in Kazakh language development by setting a group of rules in literary language and working out its own terminology for certain group of vocabulary. However, according to O. Aitbayev [O. Aitbayev 1988, p. 122-138] the texts were translated briefly expressing the main idea and without covering the whole text with other supportive ideas. At this period significant attention is paid to the translation in the newspapers and magazines. In these translations the primary text corresponds with the translated one by the compliance of the sentences to the Kazakh rules and there are no distinguished inversions characterized for Russian. Yet, the problem of word to word translation had its own impact on the Kazakh translation development.

One of the distinguished writers was M. Dulatov [A.S. Bazarbayeva 2004, p.2] who worked with Russian classics. In his articles Dulatov indicates that it is necessary to pay specific attention to the work choice and the subject of the translation. He also argues that the meaning of the text can be lost with word to word translation. M. Dulatov distinguishes one more aspect that is necessary to follow to make translation more professional it is to consider language rules and structure as well as linguistics aspects of both languages. However, the cultural features of language are crucial as well that was also covered in the translation of that time. In A. Baitursynov translation of "40 fables" the context of the translating text included cultural aspect of Russian language. In this case he made a translation considering social conditions and psychological perception of the world of Kazakh people making it clear and acceptable. Yet, the foundation of Kazakh translation was laid out later. 1920-1930 are the years of Kazakh translation foundation that was started from the translation of Russian literature into Kazakh what was caused by political and ideological influence of royal government on literature. One of the features that can be distinguished in this period is that the translation from Russian into Kazakh created a foundation of translation science [A.Kh. Alimov 1993, p.3]. According to N. Sagandykova during this time most of the literature was a translated one that consisted of near and far abroad countries [N.Sagandykova 1996, p. 125]. Translation from other languages was through Russian which also influenced on the quality of the translation. According to scientist "… the secondary translated work had certain missing points" [N. Sagandykova 1996, p. 31]. However, the translation practice at that time

shows that the translation from Russian into Kazakh was more professional than from Kazakh into Russian. "The quality of translated works from Russian into Kazakh is much better than the quality of translation from Kazakh into Russian" [N. Sagandykova 1996, p.13]. Yet, the period of translation from Russian into Kazakh is divided into two cycles. The first cycle is determined as a formal translation of the texts while the second one defines the translation process as a creative activity [A. Aldasheva 2006, p. 5-12]. The theoretical part of Kazakh translation as well as artistic style that was exemplified by Russian literature was worked out at that period. However, there were theoretical problems in artistic translation such as translation quality, congruity of the meaning between original and translated texts [A.Kh. Alimov 1993, p.67]. Tracing and word to word translation were quite common at that time. However, the translation science itself is completely formed later.

In 1960 the translation science was established that involved not only theoretical but practical materials. The works on translation theory of this period can be divided into several groups. The first group included the works on translation theory, the second are the translations from Russian into Kazakh, the third is related to interconnection between Russian and Kazakh literature. The works of the following authors can be distinguished in the translation theory: M.O. Auezov, Z. Akhmetov, H. Adibayev, G. Belger, M. Karatayev, S. Kirabayev, K. Nurmakhanov, A. Satybaldiev, S. Talzhanov. This period is characterized by the translation of social political literature, business documents and educative literature. By this period scientists had started to study translation methods and techniques, stylistic principles and rules that began formulating the theoretical base of translation activity [A. Aldasheva 2006, p.72]. M. Auezov was the first who considered translation as a separate linguistic subject. The writer argues that it is necessary to set a certain system in translation process and include the techniques of transferring specific words and phrases common for a specific nation expressing national color of the texts, the analysis of different ways and methods used by translator as well as analysis of propriety of use of all linguistic means such as intonation, lexical element, idioms, proverbs and adages. In such a way a set of principles were worked out to distinguish it as a separate linguistic subject. Later a set of work on translation theory was created.

The years of 1950-60 are characterized by the creation of scientific-and-theoretic base of Kazakh linguistics, setting the basic principles of Kazakh lexicography, developing unilingual and bilingual dictionaries, making fundamental researches of the language structure and lexical-and-grammatical system of the language [A. Aldasheva 2006, p. 5-12]. The following writers and scientists wrote about the translation from Russian into Kazakh: S.Abdrakhmanov, T. Alimkulov, M. Alimbayev, R. Berdibayev, Y. Buketov, G. Kaiyrbekov, H. Yessenzhanov, Sh. KereevaKanaphieva, S. Maulenov, S. Nuryshev, T. Sadykov. However, most of the translation works of this period was dedicated to the interconnection of Russian and Kazakh literature, where researchers distinguished three main types of translation in Kazakh literature science: liberal, word for word and professional translation [N. Sagandykova 1996, p.15]. At the beginning of fifties significant researches were made in the artistic translation theory and practice field. As scientist states "Foreign literature translation in most cases from Russian into Kazakh has become a primary goal in Kazakhstan literature" [N. Sagandykova 1996, p.13]. At the same time the process of "internationalism" was spread: "in the 50th social-and-political order influences the translation which resulted in the use of translation as a means to support "internationalism" process or friendship and unity of all Soviet Union people" [N. Sagandykova 1996, p. 13].

Thus, as Kazakhstan was joined to Russia the interaction of two neighboring cultures was resulted in the influence of Russian literature on Kazakh's which was started with translation of Russian works. First, the aim of translation was educative to introduce Kazakh people with Russian literature; however, after the Soviet Union was settled down it was converted into obligatory one to advise people with orders of the government. RussianKazakh translation has a long period of development; therefore, its studies went a lot farther than Kazakh-Russian studies. The benefit of

Russian-Kazakh translation is determined by the fact that Kazakhstan translation theory was worked out and developed thanks to the translation from Russian into Kazakh. This gave a foundation for further translation development in the XXI century.

During the independence of Kazakhstan there have been a number of changes in Kazakhstan education system as well as language policy. The main object of the government was to increase Kazakh language functioning which also demanded inter language connection with other languages that is Russian and English. Translation has become an important specialty studying of which was obligatory at universities for professional activity. The scientific approach is significant now that considers the quality of professional translation or interpreting as well as the culture of the language. At the same time the problem of Kazakh language is critical. Russian-Kazakh translation has developed to required level as a number of studies and scientific works have been carried out to prepare professional translators. Whereas English-Kazakh translation was not studied at required level as there are still a few works and scientific researches in this sphere. According to A.K. Zhumabekova [A.K. Zhumabekova 2010, p. 2] students studying English-Kazakh translation cannot refer to the scientific literature of this translation type as there is mainly theoretical and methodological literature on general theory for Russian-English translation. The need to work out a specialized scientific literature for English-Kazakh translation was not determined in the native language although there are a number of works on constructive analysis. However, these works should be integrated in one scientific work based on required analysis and assumed inferences following theoretical and didactical principles. A number of aspects should be considered in this scientific work.

There are a number of issues to cover in the theoretical literature on Kazakh-English translation. Such aspects as pre translation analysis of a text, complex analysis of lexical, grammatical and phraseological transformation, typology of translation similarities, and description of different types of equivalents are to be considered in this theory. It is also necessary to consider the issue of translation pragmatics that involves evaluation standard on translation quality. As far as artistic translation is concerned it is also necessary to classify different text genres and their comparative-contrastive analysis to the rules of translation method, basic characteristics of transformation of linguistic units and the distinction of contextual equivalents in translation theory sphere. The task to pass the meaning of a text from the original text to the translated one during its translation should also be solved. However, to work out all these theoretical components it is necessary to solve a number of problems that Kazakh linguistic system has at the moment [A.K. Zhumabekova 2010, p. 5].

There are a set of issues that Kazakh linguistics education faces. One of the concerns is the Meta linguistic theory of translation. Kazakh terminology has not been systematized as there are still exciting problems of unification, standardization and multi variability of terminology that have not been solved. Yet, one of the most important problems is the teachers' qualification on translation theory. There are also no textbooks on this subject designed for Kazakh-English translation which causes difficulty for students. At the same time a set of monographs, textbooks and collection of scientific articles written about the problems in the theory and practice of translation have been published. However, most of the textbooks are written in Kazakh according to the required state standards on education on "Translation Studies" that are subjects to modification every 3 times in 5 years which make it difficult to comply these textbooks with these standards. Moreover, some of the textbook worked out by the Kazakhstan scientists and methodologists of Russian language have been designed for different types of translation such as artistic, scientific-technical and others. According to A.K. Zhumabekova it is necessary to make some changes in the textbooks on Kazakh translation theory, however, this directly affects the need to complete the terminological dictionary in accordance with translation theory principles [A.K. Zhumabekova 2010, p. 2]. For example, "Short explanatory RussianKazakh dictionary of interpreter's terms' [Abdygapparova S.K., Zhumabekova A.K., Bugenova L.A., 2005] involves 250 terms seldom used in the teaching process and hardly found in scientific literature. There are a number of problems with systematization and method of systematization of terms.

To sum up, Kazakhstan is a multilingual country that requires the knowledge of several languages, however, the issue of translation is critical as well. Kazakh translation has a long history taking its beginning from Kazakhstan and Russia territorial connection that resulted in creation of the basis of translation. Although a number of aspects were not considered in translation it provided the translators of that time with a great deal of research and practice. This period can also be distinguished by the artistic translation that influenced translation considerably and that made a great contribution to the Kazakh literature. This time is characterized by the translation of newspapers and magazines the information in which was provided to introduce Russian culture and religion to Kazakh people. Later sources provided them with orders and norms of the government. At this time the lexicological and structural parts of the Kazakh language were developed. A set of rules and principles had been worked out in translation during that period. Only in 1960 the translation science was established that involved not only theoretical but practical materials. However, most of the research was made on Russian-Kazakh translation whereas Kazakh-Russian was not studied much. Hence, during the independence of Kazakhstan Kazakh translation was quite developed. However, English has become popular in the country and according to the Language Policy it was obligatory to know it. This caused a number of problems in this type of translation as a few research was made in Kazakh-English translation. Moreover a number of research works are to be completed and systematized in one scientific theory.



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Year: 2014
City: Almaty
Category: Philology