Teaching is a cyclic and cumulative process of permanent renewal and extension of accumulation of the knowledge. The aim of teaching is changing behavior in order to act more successfully in this field. Teaching is a process of constant transformation of a person. It is accomplished by using teaching methods. Method of teaching is direction in teaching realizing goals, tasks and teaching content of a language and determining ways for achieving it. Teaching method gives notion about language teaching strategies on the base of it the teacher works out tactics of learning activity in concrete conditions of teaching and methoddirection. Teachers need to ascertain how their students best learn and shape their teaching style to that method.
In the recent years one can often hear and see the term «strategy» around the society. At the beginning of it was used as a term of military science, because from Greek word «strategic» this word means «waging war». It gives rise to term strategy, which is obliged to development practical and theoretical art of waging war. War histories, therefore, strategies count considerable quantity of time. But scientific approach to this notion started two centuries ago and was connected with G. Lloyd (18201883), who summarized in his works rich practical experience of humanity and some attempts of theoretical studying of the question. After that it took root in politics, economics and other spheres and has meant skill of planning management based on proper and perspective forecasts. Nowadays the term strategy is widely used in pedagogics too.
The article deals with the problem of confusing and comparing of educational strategies in the learning environment. It defines the concept of main teaching and learning strategies and their classification suggested by several researchers. It supposes the place of strategies in modern educational field.
Several years ago pedagogicians often talked about methodological system, which includes 3 components: aims of teaching, content of teaching and methods, teaching forms and means. However, last time scientists mark insufficiency of this understanding of pedagogical system and necessity of it with other components. It is important to formulate principles of teaching subject content with age peculiarities of learners, inquiry of practice and needs of development of learners. All these main directions of methodology find reflection in the term «the strategy of teaching».
Modern methodology suggests a large amount of strategies applied in the process of learning foreign languages. One can say in the firm belief that the process of learning and teaching may be seriously make easy for learners if they will know these strategies. They may have opportunity to choose more appropriate strategies for themselves and use them in the process of learning. Strategies of learning foreign language – ways and methods of getting knowledge, defined by the goals of learners and directed to reaching optimum results of learning. They are used by language learners in order to intensify process of learning language, also for improving assimilation, remembering and using new information. The goal of strategy is designing a syllabus, oriented to definite group of learners, resources, with the help of activity of processes fulfilled learning tasks.
How can one define the term the strategies of learning the English language? Researchers Claus Faerkh and Kasper underlines that strategy is an attempt to develop linguistic and socio-linguistic competence by means of learning foreign language.
Research in the sphere of learning strategies were held in sixtieth of last century (Robert Burden and Williams) They tried to investigate activities of learning foreign language by successful students. In 1971 Joanne Rubin started research work on strategies applied by effective learners of the English language. In 1975 she classified them taking foundation processes directly or indirectly assisting to good learning of the English language. J. Richard and J. Platt (1992) supposes
that strategy is an intellectual behavior and reflection, which is used by learners in a proc-
During last thirty years in pedagogical ess of learning for better understanding, studying and remembering language information.
The field of foreign language acquisition has distinguished between two types of strategy: learning strategies and communication strategies. It follows to Rubin (1975) and Stern`s (1975) research work describing «good» language learners in terms of personal characteristics, styles and strategies. Rubin (Rubin and Thompson 1982) later summarized fourteen such characteristics(criterion). Good language learners
- Find their own way, taking charge of their learning
- Organize information about language
- Are creative developing, developing a «feel» for the language by experimenting with its grammar and words
- Make their own opportunities for practice in using the language inside and outside the classroom
- Learn to live with uncertainty by not getting flustered and by continuing to talk or listen without understanding every word
- Use mnemonics and other memory strategies to recall what has been learned
- Make errors work for them and not against them
- Use linguistic knowledge, including knowledge of their first language, in learning a second language
- Use contextual cues to help them in comprehension
- Learn to make intelligent guesses
- Learn chunks of language as wholes and formalized routines to help them perform «beyond their competence»
- Learn certain tricks that help to keep conversations going
- Learn certain production strategies to fill gaps in their on competence
- Learn different styles of speech and writing and learn to vary their language according to the formality of the situation.
Learners must learn to learning and the teacher has to learn conditions for learning. Although learning is an integral part of life but realization in autonomous teaching and using strategies must be intensified with the help of trainings. Language learning demands active self-governing from the learners` side (3, p. researches systematic approach widely spread and it was acknowledged that pedagogical system of teaching in other words methodological system consists of three components: goals of teaching, content of teaching and methods, forms and means. However, in recent years many scientists-pedagogicians in inadequacy of such understanding of pedagogical system and necessity of widen with several components. Obviously, it is not enough to teaching including content of subject; it is necessary to formulate principles of selection of content, its construction in accordance to age peculiarities of learners, with inquiries of practice and requirements developing of a person. All these key directions of methodological science consider reflection in new category «strategy of teaching subject».
In pedagogics has been considered muddle with terms «technology of teaching» and «strategy of teaching». In its broaden sense «technology of teaching» deals neither with selection of content teaching nor basis of principles of learning subjects. Its goal is decision of tactical tasks. It answers to the question «How can one act in order to reach efficient goals of teaching?» Strategy of teaching replies to the question «What will one do in order to reach goals of teaching?»
Methodologically technolization of learning process is connected with rational didactical paradigm technocratic approach in teaching when main attention is paid to remembering of mass of information, receipts, but thinking skills and taking decisions at nonstandard situations move to second plan. This means technology of teaching is tactics of teaching.
Another part of pedagogics deciding strategically tasks was often called strategy of education( teaching). Although not all scientists use this term. It must be said that the term «strategy of teaching» needs in more precise definition. It may be considered on the base of comprehension of strategic goals of teaching. Evidently they must have systematic feature. They are goals vectors with common character counted on all period of teaching. These aims are called strategical.
Educational strategy is the plan of pedagogical actions towards accomplishing of educational strategic goals. In this understanding teaching strategy exists for a long time and is present in many pedagogical systems, but the term was not used itself. This is related to the teaching strategy as a plan of collective pedagogical actions ensuring unity of selforganization and managing of formation of different spiritual saturated educational environment for promoting of a person to absolute ideal. On the ground of teaching strategy must lie some recommendations, orientation, principles directing pedagogical activities. It can be methodological principles, principles of development, up-bringing and teaching. This means that teaching strategies have very broad notion having a lot of aspects which are need in further researches and concretization.
The problem of choosing strategy of teaching is caused by the learners having different level of initial base knowledge, intellectual development and creative abilities in real teaching process. In the English as the foreign language teaching language learning strategies are steps, thoughts or actions, taken by learners to improve their learning and use of the foreign language. All language learning strategies are mainly divided into cognitive strategies, metacognitive and affective or social strategies (Gan, Humphreys, HampLyon`s 2004).
Among a lot of existing strategy classification classifications, perhaps the most recognized and quite frequently pertained to is the taxonomy established by Oxford in 1990.In concept of R. Oxford strategies are subdivided into direct learning strategies, which sustain process learning of language and culture, and indirect learning strategies, which stimulate cooperation with native speakers of foreign language. Direct learning strategies are the strategies based in mechanisms of human memory( memory strategies);cognitive strategies and compensation strategies. Memory strategies include grouping, pairing or making meaningful maps. Cognitive strategies are intellectual processes helping select the appropriate information and reject the unnecessary and confusing material. It includes strategies for understanding structures, organizational material, language use and production. Compensation strategies compensate for the missing knowledge.
The author indirect learning strategies relates to metacognitive, affective and social strategies. Metacognitive strategies let learners to cope with over viewing new rules and relating them to prior knowledge, setting goals and objectives, organizing and evaluating its results. Affective strategies are used to help learners to deal with anxiety in class and lower its levels thus making learning more effective. Social strategies are useful when learners interact with other learners or native speakers.
As it has been said before there are learning strategies and teaching strategies. They are often thought of mutually changed. But these strategies are not the same. Because learning strategies can be used by the learner for understanding, retaining and applying new knowledge. They are not visible or immediately identifiable. Teaching strategies are used by the teachers to further understanding for language learners and to make content more accessible to them. These are the techniques, approaches, activities or assignments that teachers can use to help language learners process new information and apply prior learning. They are immediately visible and identifiable. So, in this way learning strategies are connected with how the information is received, otherwise teaching strategies deal with how teachers send the information.
Teaching strategies junction all components of education. All these components are always connected with specific character of teaching. Teaching strategies begin to act as soon as definite language material has already assimilated. Fundamental meaning of these strategies are concluded in helping learners to use the language they have learned.
These strategies are most successful when they are applied in a system that supports co-operation between learners and educators and in which is a part of a well-planned whole system. This illustrates the importance of these strategies which are useful unless there is ongoing documentation of their results. Evidently that these strategies are most effective when they are implemented in positive, encouraged environments where is identification of the emotional, social and physical necessities of learners and where individual strengths are recognized, brought up and developed.
Strategies of teachinglearning models which define precise results of learning and directed to their achievement by means of specially designed learning of a syllabus. Defining strategies is a cultivation of aims, process of assimilation teaching content, support of learners and feedback.
The task of teaching strategies is to producing instruction(tuition).The main thing in teaching strategiesproducts of education, i.e. results of learning of students. The teaching strategies are urgent necessary for language teaching. There are 3 reasons for wide using of them in methodology. Firstly, strategies point and direct to need direction. Secondly, they help to avoid wrong activities in language teaching. Finally, they facilitate to defining methodological mistakes and to rectify errors.
There are six types of teaching strategy: cooperative learning, experimental teaching, critical learning, contextual teaching, communicative teaching, self-governing teaching. Cooperative learning potentially supposes achievements of intellectual autonomy of person and development opportunity of social competence. It teaches learners to essential social habits and their usage. Experimental teaching in the model of David Colb (1984)includes four processes each of them must present in order teaching process was the most absolute. The goal of critical learning strategy is development abilities of formation own opinion in the search process of information, sensible and objective evaluation of quality of this information, changing outlook in discovering new reliable information. Context is a system of inner and outer factors of activities of a person in concrete situation. This is related to three base forms of teaching: semiotical, imitational and social ones. Strategies of communicative teaching are the strategies based on humanitarian part of communication line up modeling behavior for dynamics of conversations, mutual action in groups, in public professionaloriented communication. The strategies of self-governing teaching is efficient and its results are well preserved for a long time if learners think of process of selfdevelopment and its results.
To sum up, strategies are special ways to approaching a problem or a task, methods of operation for achieving a planned designs for con-trolling and manipulating certain information. They might vary from moment to moment. Also they vary individually; one has a number of possible ways to solve a particular problem, and everybody chooses one or several strategies in sequence for a given problem. The review of different theories of strategies in is destinated to be a resource for EFL teachers in providing ideas for incorporating them into teaching process. The relationship between strategies` use and their influence on learners` promotes to more effective teaching and learning process. Nevertheless, it is important to observe this issue further.
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