In linguistics, the study of speaking verbs, such as verbs of speech, communicative verbs is researched in different directions, both domestic and foreign scientists set themselves different tasks. They were studied from the point of view of their lexical and grammatical semantics, from the point of view of the syntactic properties of these verbs, at the functional level, in the aspect of the relationship between thinking and speech, the logical and semantic properties of speech verbs.
However, there are still no works in linguistics that consider the functional categorization of speaking verbs with a mechanism description for varying their categorical status from the standpoint of functional. Semiological and prototypical approaches to the formation of the categorical meaning of predicative units.
The verbs say, tell, speak and talk carry one integral symptom “speaking”, while the linguistic units have differential signs in their semantic meaning. In this regard, the verbs say, tell, speak and talk are attributed to the nuclear zone, and their synonyms are in the peripheral zones.
The concept of "speaking” in modem English can be objectified at the linguistic level in the most generalized form, stylistically neutralized by the verbs say, tell, speak and talk, which we define as prototypes of the concept study.
Speaking verbs have been repeatedly the object of linguistic research, where their lexical and categorical semantics were studied as well as functioning in various structures. In linguistic literature, the nomenclature of the semantic structure is described quite well in considering group of verbs at the systematic and paradigmatic level, there are also data concerning the features of their functioning in the utterance sentence. However, there are not many works in linguistics that consider the functional speaking verbs categories with a description of the mechanism for varying their categorical status from the functional, Semiological and prototypical approaches to the categorical meaning formation of predicative units. [1; p. 96]
Speaking verbs are one of the most objects in linguistic research. Interest to this group oflexical units is due to both of their semantic structure and the ambiguity in the issue of identifying synonymous series and thematic groups.
Due to the fact that these cognitive features were identified in accordance to the semantic components of the synonymous series of the verbs say, tell, speak and talk separately, the interpretation of these features leads to the construction of a general model of the linguistic representation of the concept of "speaking". So, we can distinguish the main four groups of ways of research verb, namely:
- The manner of speaking Speech is characterized as a sound image endowed with certain qualities. Physical characteristics include: tonality (high, low), loudness (loud, quiet), vocal characteristics (sonorous, hoarse, whispering), tempo (fast, slow), quantity (a lot, little) and articulation (with defects, clearly, illegible).
- Presentation form . It indicates the form of expression of thoughts, for example, desci ibe — cunanmiay, описывать, inform — хабарлау, информировать, manifest - өңдеу, жариялау, обнародовать, провозглашать, declare - жариялау, объявлять, mention — атап оту, упоминать. This group can also include linguistic units that have a negative emotional connotation in their meaning: patter - әцгімелесу, тараторить, gabble - тырсылдату, трещать, palaver - мақтау, льстить.
- “Attitude”. The speaking process suggests a type of social relationship itself. This aspect characterizes the speech activity of the speaker as a connection between people, based on the common interests of the participants in situation: chat әңгімелесу, болтать, converse - байланыста болу, поддерживать отношения, discuss — талқылау, обсуждать, instruct — нусқау беру, инструктировать, request - сурау, просить, give away - ашып айту, раскрыться, confess — мойындау признаваться.
- “Target setting”. The communicative purpose of the statement is determined in this aspect. Here we can distinguish such signs as “speaking as a hint”, “speaking as a conviction”, “speaking as advice”, “speaking as an assessment”, “speaking as spending time” and “speaking as harming”: attest - айгақ беру, свидетельствовать, depose - сендіру, уверять, warrant - ескерту, предупреждать, insinuate - мецзеу, намекать, introduce — таныстыру, представлять, propose — усыну, предлагать, dictate - нусқау беру, диктовать, imply - мецзеу, подразумевать. [2; р.310]
Thus, the concept of “speaking” in modern English can be objectified at the linguistic level in the most generalized form, stylistically it is neutralized by the verbs say, tell, speak and talk, which we define as prototypes of the concept under the research. The given semantic components are included in the core of the nominative field. Differential components are also highlighted, expressed by their synonyms. These language units are included in the peripheral zones of the analyzed field. The field organization of the concept reflects the hierarchy of individual cognitive features. The division of the concept content into the core and the periphery is carried out according to the intensity criterion of cognitive features.
The analysis of the dominant verbs of the Kazakh, English and Russian languages айту, сөйлеу - say, speak - говорить, сказать shows that they implement the substitute function in the same way. The more dominants of the lexical-semantic group of speech verbs are able to replace verbs, that is higher pragmatic significance.
The object of analysis was the verbs denoting only the process of speech in its pure form for a long time. On the other hand, verbs that implement some activity in the act of speech, which were excluded from the range of those considered. This approach have considered that speech verbs denote an action (in a broad sense) performed by the vocal apparatus, that is, the pronunciation of articulate sounds (individual words or phrases) in the process of verbal communication. Two main groups were distinguished in the thematic group of verbs containing an indication of the speech process for a long time:
- verbs, which are denoting the actual process of speech and its main functions (message, conversation, story): tell, say, speak, talk.
- verbs, which are denoting any other action that can be implemented in the process ofspeech (oral or written): command, order, affirm, repeat.
The study of speaking verbs (speech verbs, communicative verbs) were in different directions, both national and foreign scientists put different tasks before themselves in linguistics. This class of verbs were studied from the point of view of their lexical and grammatical semantics, the syntactic properties of these verbs at the functional level in the aspect of the relationship between thinking and speech, and also the logical and semantic properties of speech verbs.
First of all the verbs denoting the actual process of speech can be divided into two subgroups:
- Verbs, which there are a designation of one of the speech process functions in its pure form, without additional characteristics:
- verbs, which are the most general designation of the speech process: tell, say, speak, talk.
- verbs, which are narrower designation of the speech process: narrate, express, repeat, declare.
- Verbs containing an additional characteristic of the speech process are its duration, beginning, end, sound strength, pronunciation clarity, and so on. As a rule, verbs with additional adverbial words characterizing the process, which are distinguished here.
In a typical speech situation, including the speaker, the listener and the speaker’s utterance are associated with a wide variety of types of acts. When speaking, the speaker puts the speech apparatus in motion and pronounces sounds. At the same time, it performs other acts: informs the listeners, or causes them irritation or boredom. It also carries out acts consisting in the mention of certain person, places. In addition, the speaker makes a statement or asks a question, gives a command or reports, congratulates or warns, that is, performs an act from among them, that Austin called illocutionary.
Examples of English verbs associated with illocutionary acts are: state - бекіту, «излагать, констатировать», assert — мэлімдеу, «утверждать, заявлять», describe - сгтаттау «описывать», warn - ескерту, «предупреждать», remark баіщау, «замечать», comment - түсініктеме беру, «комментировать», command- буиръщ беру «командовать», order - тапсырыс беру, «приказывать», request - сурау, «просить», approve - бекіту, «одобрять». [2; р.310]
The main speaking verbs include the verbs say, tell, speak, talk. Here are their semantic characteristics. The semantics of the verbs belonging to the synonymous groups of the verb say is based on the meaning of information. The total number of synonyms of the verb say consists of 92 lexical units, which are in four synonymous series. Each of the constituents included in the synonymous series, and conveys a separate differential feature and is characterized by an additional semantic coloring.
Thus, the analysis of the semantics of the nominative field core, including the direct nomination of the research concept, namely the verb say, allowed us to single out the following semantic components: “to express thoughts verbally; to express an opinion; give examples; testify, point to something”:
The first time to say you loved me and missed me and were longing to come back to me and would I wait for you and there wasn't anyone else was there [3; p.46].
Speaking verbs with a simple semantic structure tend to expand their semantics in Syntagmatics by specifying: say, tell, ask, talk, speak, answer. Example: Dora began to say something to him, but he went off without looking at her.; Yet she had only to speak a few quiet words, put a finger on his sleeve placatingly.; He went instead to the Headmaster and told him the whole story.; He hefted the gun in his hand and asked a question with knitted black eyebrows.
Yu.D. Apresyan uses a detailed and expanded nomenclature of speech acts. His basic thesis is that the performative formula before performative verb. That is, the meaning of the performativity of a verb have determined by the performative context, therefore, the main properties of performative verbs are motivated by the primary properties of performative statements: impermanence, equivalence to action, intentionality, uniqueness, etc.
Не also argues that the verb “speak' is not purely performative, and in a sentence such as “I say that he is mistaken,” it performs an anaphoric function, referring to what is already said before this act of speech. [4; p. 212]
Semantic verbs say, tell, speak and talk carry one integral feature “speaking”, while other linguistic units have differential features in their semantic meaning. In this regard, the verbs say, tell, speak and talk are assigned to the nuclear zone, and their synonyms are to the peripheral zones.
Due to the fact of these cognitive features were identified in accordance with the semantic components of the synonymous series of the verbs say, tell, speak and talk separately, the interpretation of these features leads to the construction of a general model of the linguistic representation of the “speaking” concept.
Thus, the “speaking” concept in modern English can be objectified at the linguistic level of the most generalized form, stylistically neutralized by the verbs say, tell, speak and talk, which we define the concept as prototypes.
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