Globalization and internationalization is the main step in development of higher education. However, globalization and internationalization in Kazakhstan depends mainly on development of world educational space and faces several issues as it is still on the nascent stage compared to other countries.
Education is the main indicator of development in all civilized countries. Countries compete not only with goods and service but also with the system of social values and the system of education. With the transformation of human potential into the main resource of the development of world civilization, education becomes more important in the world community.
Internationalization, as one of the important modern tendencies of higher education development, nurtures improving competitiveness of countries and regions.
Internationalization of higher education is characterized by the level of student and teachers exchange, internationalization of a curriculum, creating a regional and international network among institutions. Internationalization of science in institutions is applied by joint scientific researches, international conferences and taking part in them, publishing the results of scientific researches in foreign journals.
With the process of globalization and internationalization of economics and business, new goals appeared for higher education, that is training professional staff can work effectively under changed conditions of the global market.
Currently, globalization is one of the leading factors affecting the formation of a new state of education. It contributes to the development of the world educational space, which becomes multicultural and socially-oriented to the development of human and civilization in general. However, the impact of globalization is twofold: it can be both positive and negative. But at the same time, as before, the decisive role in ensuring the development of human civilization remains for education. Globalization is the main force in the process of establishing both a theoretical and political framework for an increasing number of spheres of human activity. Globalization becomes a complex phenomenon, not limited to its influence by a single sphere of our being. And, of course, it cannot stay without affecting the sphere of higher education, where scientific, technical and managerial personnel are being prepared, that is, carriers of modern scientific and technological progress.
Higher education is the most important social institution that functions to meet social needs and therefore reacts vividly to internal and external changes and processes. Intercountry economic relations that are constantly increasing in scope and increasingly multifaceted by content form the need for the universal staff of specialists who receive professional training in national universities.
The national system of education cannot develop beyond the global processes and tendencies, beyond the requirements of the world labor market. While solving the problem of restructuring and developing high schools in different countries, it is impossible to think only about the criteria of the national level. Hopes of higher education require adequate responses which are to strengthen the international component in organizing the training of competent specialists; provide the internationalization of higher education and science.
In recent decades appearance and development of global tendencies raise new challenges for higher education in Kazakhstan. Rankings as a tool of assessment and comparing institutions' operations are one of the ways used for improving the system of higher education, stimulate competition between universities and have already firmly entered the life of our country. When rating the universities activities, the results of scientific activities represent 30% in the methodology of the rating of World University Ranking and almost the same indicator is used in QS methodology.
Integration of education and science is one of the main objectives of the Concept of the Development of Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Science and education should be regarded as a national asset, which determines the level of development and future of the country, and the government support in this direction is the development of national economies.
At present, the internationalization of higher education is taking place, which gradually acquires the features of a qualitatively new stage - integration, the all-around convergence of national educational systems, their complementarity. Internationalization is the process by which an international, intercultural or global dimension is integrated into higher education's purposes, functions and modes of delivery . The transformation of higher education into the world social system is characterized by a multitude of interrelated elements of different levels and character. Occupying its specific place in the market of educational services, universities interact in the form of cooperation or rivalry, developing the basic guidelines of this market. The need for the sustainability of the system of higher education presupposes its constant development and adaptation to the changing conditions of the modern world. In this regard, the crisis of higher education, which many experts have been writing about in recent years, is nothing more than a signal to the need to reform its content, forms, and tasks in response to the "challenge of the era."
On March 11, 2010, Kazakhstan became the 47th country that joined the Bologna Process. The three cycle-system of education that is a bachelor, masters and doctorate (Ph.D.) was introduced. Today the republic's entry into the European educational space is considered in the context of national interests in the development of the country's foreign policy aimed at cooperation with Europe, including joining the WTO and participating in the market of educational services.
It should be emphasized that in the new conditions of the development of civilization, the reform of the educational system in different countries of the world has become a continuous process, taking place by the principles of humanization, humanitarianization, differentiation, multivariance, continuity. In this regard, further, development is given to distance learning, in the future - the creation of electronic, virtual universities of a distributed type.
With the joining of Kazakhstan to the Bologna Process, the main objective of the state educational policy for the future is to focus on achieving the quality of education by the level of international standards of today. However, the republic's entry into the Bologna process has given raises several difficulties.
In Western countries, it would seem everything happens simply and logically: developed industry and agriculture require certain specialists. To this end, some universities and colleges prepare them according to the appropriate methodology, graduates are sent to the manufacturing enterprises, and students are trained in what will be in demand in their future professional work. Innovations and improvement Ofteaching methods do not occur in the directives and orders of the education authorities but are stimulated by the requirements of the students to the level of their preparation, which is necessary for their future work.
Acquaintance with such experience, naturally, makes it attractive for its implementation in our country. This practice exists everywhere in the civilized world, and therefore the transfer of experience of Western countries has become a frank ideology that underlies the modernization of our education sphere. But if in those countries the methodology of teaching was determined by the corresponding economic relations, then it originated in us through the projection of the experience of instruction directly from the education of these countries into our education sphere. As it seems, in such an innocuous operation, a serious mistake occurs: these innovations in our practice are no longer motivated by the demands of our economy, by the mental features and, in general, by the challenges of our reality. And this is very important, because as a result of this, the motivation for training, the practical relevance of graduates and other moments that are moving the entire educational process are disappearing. In short, the repetition of someone else's experience is not such a simple matter, as it may seem at first sight. Practice shows that copying someone else's experience without taking into account the national specifics, the values of the society in which these innovations should take root, turns into manipulation, and at best - in the solution of some narrow tasks. Hence there is an importance of identifying barriers that hamper the innovation process.
First, adherence to international standards does not mean a complete rejection of the values and traditions accumulated in the domestic education system and fundamental science. The reform of higher education in the context of the Bologna Declaration in Kazakhstan was carried out in a very short time, one might say, by administrative methods. Certainly, there are certain achievements in the implementation of the new technology of education, but the strongest democratic components of it have not yet been implemented properly: there is still no real choice of teachers, elective disciplines, there is no organization of students own trajectory of training, the methodology still does not correspond to the ideology of this method. As a result, blind copying of the European-American standard, unapproved to the domestic education system, has greatly affected its quality.
Secondly, one of the conditions of the Bologna Declaration is the convertibility of diplomas and the demand for specialists in domestic and international labor markets. There is also something to think about. Today there are more than 150 universities in the country (figures are changing due to reorganization). Kazakhstan is ahead of such Countries-Ieaders of higher education, like England, Japan, Germany, and Russia in the number of universities for one million residents. But these are quantitative characteristics, but not qualitative ones. And here the question arises: what are the principles of higher educational institutions in forming a contingent of students? Teachers of universities know that the admission in our practice is realized without taking into account targeted training, that is, the demand for future specialists by enterprises, institutions, organizations, and as a result, many of them after graduating from high school fall into the category of unemployed or do not work in their degree field. It is also obvious that many universities prepare students for the same specialties, as a result, their overabundance results, and young people remain unclaimed.
Countries with extensive internationalization activities have well established and professionally running administrative processes, procedures, and systems which support student and staff mobility. Kazakhstan's higher education is still in its infancy compared to many countries, as it lacks strategic vision and the level of resourcing needed to make a real difference. There are "Offices of International Co-operation" in the universities to build international ties, support staff, and student mobility, but these units are poorly funded, understaffed. Also, the staff of such offices has limited networking and knowledge-sharing opportunities, which leads to reduced opportunities for relevant professional development .
Neo-Iiberalism can be defined as a new form of management of human society, which organizes its activities in a competitive environment. The main features of neoliberalism are absolutization of market mechanisms and competition as factors of social development; delegation of a part of the economic sovereignty of countries to international organizations, such as IMF World Bank, World Trade Organization; privatization of the social sphere (health" education, and infrastructure). '
At present, there is a comprehensive penetration of neoliberal practices into social reality through the transformation of all spheres of public life.
Today, education is seen as a commodity. Each year, the share of expenses sent by students on education increases, which is "caused by the increase in the share of paid education and its ever-growing price. The aim of institutions became to pursue "student purses". The economic profitability of education comes to the fore, not its quality. Higher schools are becoming highly profitable businesses. The reasons for such a transformation of higher education lie in the socio-economic policies of most modern states, which are based on the "Washington Consensus", implemented by international institutions. It contains such programs as the privatization of the sphere of education; reduction of direct public funding for education; commercialization Ofeducation; creation of a global market for educational services; integration of national educational systems into the global economy of education. The actuation of such a program caused the economization of higher education institutions, which was implemented through a reduction in the share of government spending on educational and scientific activities, which forced universities to seek additional sources of funding. Changes in the structure of funding and the orientation of higher education institutions on the provision of services have given rise to the idea of an "entrepreneurial university" whose goal is to produce and sell knowledge and information on the global education market. From the entrepreneurial university, the following conditions are required: the university should behave like an entrepreneurial organization, that is, strive for maximum profit; members of the university (students, teachers, etc.) should proceed from entrepreneurial logic, that is, be entrepreneurs in education and science; the university should be built into the market environment of the world, the country and the region .
The inclusion of higher education in the system of market relations has changed the positioning of universities and the results of their activities. The university - the service provider is forced to behave like a commercial structure that resorts to classical marketing strategies, including branding, to occupy a larger market share. As a result, higher education institutions arbitrarily set a high price for educational services, depending on their status, which limited access to education for socially vulnerable groups .
The general trend is this: universities are guided by modern market requirements, trying to become economically viable. Gradually "non-profitable" specialties are reduced, the number of private educational organizations increases .
List of references:
- Gudima, V. (2016). Obrazovaniye - ne tovar [Education is not a commodity]. Scepsis. Retrieved from http://scepsis. net/library/id_ 2691. html
- Iglton, T. (2016) Medlennaya smert Universiteta [Slow death of university]. Scepsis. Retrieved from http://scepsis.net/library/id_ 3672. html
- Knight, J. (2003). Updating the definition of internationalization. International Higher Education, 33, 2-3. Retrieved from https:// htmldbprod.bc.edu/prd/f?p=2290:4:0:NO:RP,4:P0_CONTENTJD:99928
- OECD. (2017). Higher Education in Kazakhstan 2017, Reviews of National Policies for Education, OECD Publishing, Paris
- Unkovski-koritsa, V. (2007). Udar po neoliberalizmu - Studencheskiye protesty 2006 goda [A blow to neoliberalism — the 2006 student protests]. Scepsis. Retrieved from http://scepsis.net/ library/ id_2240.html