Comparative analysis for the content of heavy metals in the water of peretaska rivers and ural

Abstract

This article provides an overview of the surface water volume, gives practical recommendations for water saving, and presents the result of water analyzes sampling of Ural River and Peretaska channel.

Water is a valuable natural resource. Every day for each of us about 2.5-3 liters per day is required for drinking and cooking, but this 1 m3 per year is special potable water.

Introduction

Antarctica, scientists think, contains approximately 75% of the world's freshwater and 90% of the world's ice, and almost 10% of the continental glaciers are located in Antarctica and Greenland.

The scale of pollution of rivers and lakes in Kazakhstan is becoming critical. The waterways of our country are disturbed by their "polluted" fate. In the latest issue of the departmental bulletin they noted: of the 69 rivers of Kazakhstan, only 9 were recognized as clean. The remaining 60 are contaminated [1].

The ecological status of rivers and lakes is regularly monitored by the RGP "Kazgidromet" of the Department of Environmental Monitoring (Ministry of Environmental Protection). Specialists of this center are on duty at stations and posts near water bodies, take water samples and investigate it in laboratories. Laboratory assistants assess the level of pollution of surface and sea waters by the value of the water pollution index (WPI).

The water resources of Kazakhstan in the river basins have been studied in sufficient detail. However, the territory of Kazakhstan is located mainly in the lower parts of the rivers. Therefore, the amount of water coming from adjacent territories is gradually decreasing. Reliable determination of their values for the future is almost impossible; it is also very difficult to predict the volume of river flow, which should flow into the territory of the republic from adjacent territories [2].

The indicators of the sanitary and chemical analysis of the composition of wastewater allow one to assess the possibility of using certain methods and technologies for water purification. For treatment plants, the most important tasks of the sanitary and chemical analysis are to monitor the cleaning processes and evaluate the efficiency of each facility [3].

In the future, the Republic of Kazakhstan is not able to meet the water needs of economic sectors and preserve the natural complexes in river basins in a satisfactory condition. Therefore, the following necessary measures should be taken:

  • Develop a long-term interstate agreement on the rational use and protection of water resources in transboundary river basins. First you need to develop a methodological basis for the division of water;

Or develop measures to reduce specific water consumption rates in sectors of the economy, especially in the irrigated agriculture sector, by 2 or more times. In irrigated agriculture, it is advisable to consider the possibility of transferring water-intensive to low water intensive cultures; the widespread introduction of feed crop rotations. This is a cardinal measure, because in parallel it is possible to stop further deterioration of the ecological and reclamation condition of irrigation systems. Otherwise, in the long term, there is a danger of putting irrigation systems out of agricultural circulation in general, since the process of salt accumulation and a tendency to increase it is observed in irrigation systems. This is facilitated by the increasing in the salinity of irrigation water coming from the territory of neighboring states. The redevelopment of agricultural production areas: their transfer to the production of vegetables and melons, the development of horticulture and viticulture in order to provide the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan with these types of products; the priority of grain production is given to dry-growing agriculture; limited development of industrial crop production. It is necessary to harmonize the development of irrigated agriculture with the irrigation capacity of the watercourse. And, first of all, it is necessary to create conditions for the preservation and restoration of natural complexes in river basins.

  • It is advisable to develop pond facilities and non-water-intensive or water- free industries. Such a task should be set for the next 5-10 years (for 2015- 2020). Transboundary Rivers will occur at a rapid pace (will depend on the pace of development of industries in neighboring countries).

Main report

In the course of recent events on the fish extinction on the Ural River from December 2018 to 2019, studies were conducted on samples from the Ural River and the Peretaska channel.

In pursuance of the Protocol order of the Energy Vice-Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan S. Nurlybay of 04.01.2019 RGP "Kazgidromet" from 08 to 21 January 2019 conducted daily unscheduled sampling of water at 13 sites in the river Zhayik and Yaik, Peretaska channels.

From 21.01. 2019 theRGP "Kazgidromet" switched to a weekly unscheduled sampling of water at the above 13 sites.

Laboratory analysis is performed on 41 indicators of water quality, including major ions, biogenic, organic matter and heavy metals.

The results of an Unscheduledwater sampling of the Zhayik River for April 1, 2019 are shown in Table 1 [4].

Table 1 - The results of an unscheduled water sampling of the Zhayik River for April 1, 2019 (13 sites) [4].

 

Water quality indicators name

Unit of measur ement

MPC Norm

Zhayik river point 1 km higher from Atyrau city

01.04.2019г.

Actual Concentrati ons.

Multiplicity Exceeding MPC

 

Visual observations

   

Unusual facts for watercourse not detected

 

Water temperature

0

C

no

2.0

 
 

Hydrogen indicator

 

O

8.2

 
 

Oxygen saturation

%

O

44

 
 

Electrical conductivity

мкСм/ CM

 

395

 
 

Dissolved oxygen

mg/dm 3

 

6.1

 
 

Biological oxygen consumption 5

       
 

Suspended substances

mg/dm 3

no

420

 
 

Chromaticity

degrees

o

39

 

0

Transparence

cm

o

30

 

1

Smell

score

o

0

 

2

Carbon dioxide

mg/dm 3

o

0

 

3

Chemical oxygen consumption

mg/dm 3

o

18

 
 

MAIN IONS

4

Chlorides

mg/dm 3

00

74

0.2

5

Sulfate

mg/dm 3

00

77

0.8

6

Hydrocarbonate

mg/dm 3

no

109

 

7

Calcium

mg/dm 3

80

34

0.2

8

Magnesium

mg/dm 3

0

28

0.7

9

Rigidity

mg/dm 3

no

4.0

 

0

Sodium and potassium sums

mg/dm 3

 

53

 

1

Ions sum

mg/dm 3

no

380

 
 

BIOGENIC AND IN

ORGANIC SUBSTANCES

2

Ammonium Nitrogen

mg/dm 3

.39

0.08

0.2

3

Nitrite nitrogen

mg/dm 3

.02

0.00

09

0.05

4

Nitrogen nitrate

mg/dm 3

.1

3.7

0.4

5

Nitrogen sum

mg/dm 3

 

3.8

 

6

Phosphates

mg/dm 3

no

0.00

2

 

7

Common phosphorus

mg/dm 3

no

0.2

 

8

Common iron

mg/dm 3

.1

0.09

0.9

9

Silicon

mg/dm 3

no

1.1

 
 

Boron

mg/dm

 

0.01

0.6

О

 

3

.01 7

0

 

1

Synthetic surfactants

mg/dm

3

 

0.03

 
 

METALS

2

Cuprum

mg/dm

3

.00

1

0

0

3

Zinc

mg/dm

3

.01

0.00

4

0.4

4

Chrome (3+)

mg/dm

3

.00 5

0.00

1

0.2

5

Chrome (6+)

mg/dm

3

.02

0.00

2

0.1

6

Common chrome

mg/dm

3

 

0.00

3

 

7

Manganese

mg/dm

3

.01

0.00

2

0.2

8

Nickel

mg/dm

3

.01

0.00

2

0.2

9

Hydrogen sulphide (H2S)

mg/dm

3

 

0

 
 

ORGANIC SUBSTANCES

О

Oil products

mg/dm

3

.05

0.03

0.5

1

Phenols

mg/dm

3

.00

1

0.00

06

0.6

 

Bottom sediment quality indicators name

Unit of measurement

Zhayik river point 1 km higher from Atyrau city»

01.04.2019г

Actual concentrations.

 

Cuprum

mg/kg

0.5

 

Zinc

mg/kg

1.3

 

Nickel

mg/kg

0.4

 

Common chrome

mg/kg

0.04

 

Manganese

mg/kg

0.11

 

Cadmium

mg/kg

0.24

 

Plumbum

mg/kg

0.25

 

Oil products

mg/kg

0.03

 

Water quality indicators name

Unit of measure ment

MPC Norm

Peretaska channel, 4 km, lower from Atyrau, 0.5 km lower the branch duct Peretaska

01

.04.2019г

Actual concentrations.

Multiplicity

Exceeding MPC

 

Visual observations

   

Unusual facts for watercourse not detected

 

Water temperature

0C

no

1.2

 
 

Hydrogen indicator

 

no

8.0

 
 

Oxygen saturation

%

no

40

 
 

Electrical conductivity

мкСм/см

 

421

 
 

Dissolved oxygen

мг/дм3

 

5.7

 
 

Biological oxygen consumption 5

       
 

Suspended substances

mg/dm3

no

379

 
 

Chromaticity

degree

no

38

 

0

Transparence

см

no

28

 

1

Smell

score

no

0

 

2

Carbon dioxide

mg/dm3

no

0

 

3

Chemical oxygen consumption

mg/dm3

no

19

 
 

MAIN IO

NS

4

Chlorides

mg/dm3

00

80

0.3

5

Sulfate

mg/dm3

00

84

0.8

6

Hydrocarbonate

mg/dm3

no

183

 

7

Calcium

mg/dm3

80

39

0.2

8

Magnesium

mg/dm3

0

32

0.8

9

Rigidity

mg/dm3

no

4.6

 

0

Sodium and potassium sums

mg/dm3

 

61

 

1

Ions sum

mg/dm3

no

483

 
 

BIOGEN

IC AND IN

ORGA

NIC SUBSTANCES

2

Ammonium Nitrogen

mg/dm3

.39

0.08

0.2

3

Nitrite nitrogen

mg/dm3

.02

0.002

0.1

 

Nitrogen nitrate

mg/dm3

 

3.9

0.4

4

   

.1

   

5

Nitrogen sum

mg/dm3

 

4.0

 

6

Phosphates

mg/dm3

no

0.002

 

7

Common phosphorus

mg/dm3

no

0.3

 

8

Common iron

mg/dm3

.1

0.076

0.8

9

Silicon

mg/dm3

нет

1.2

 

О

Boron

mg/dm3

.017

0.010

0.6

1

Synthetic surfactants

mg/dm3

 

0.03

 
 

N

ETALS

2

Cuprum

mg/dm3

.001

0

0

3

Zinc

mg/dm3

.01

0.003

0.3

4

Chrome (3+)

mg/dm3

.005

0.002

0.4

5

Chrome (6+)

mg/dm3

.02

0.003

0.2

6

Common chrome

mg/dm3

 

0.005

 

7

Manganese

mg/dm3

.01

0.002

0.2

8

Nickel

mg/dm3

.01

0.003

0.3

9

Hydrogen sulphide (H2S)

mg/dm3

 

0

 
 

ORGANIC SUBSTANCES

О

Oil products

mg/dm3

.05

0.04

0.9

1

Phenols

mg/dm3

.001

0.0007

0.7

 

Water quality indicators name

Unit of measure ment

MPC Norm

Peretaskachannelpoint "7,6 km,IowerfromAtyrau,2 kmhigherfrom AtyrauTEC"

01

.04.2019г

Actual concentrations.

Multiplicity

Exceeding MPC

 

Visual observations

   

Unusual facts for watercourse not detected

 

Water temperature

0C

O

1.2

 
 

Hydrogen indicator

 

o

8.2

 
 

Oxygen saturation

%

o

46

 
 

Electrical conductivity

мкСм/см

 

401

 
 

Dissolved oxygen

mg/dm3

 

6.5

 
 

Biological oxygen consumption 5

       
 

Suspended substances

mg/dm3

o

445

 
 

Chromaticity

degree

o

38

 

0

Transparence

см

o

27

 

1

Smell

score

o

0

 

2

Carbon dioxide

mg/dm3

o

0

 

3

Chemical oxygen consumption

mg/dm3

o

21

 
 

MAIN IONS

4

Chlorides

mg/dm3

00

85

0.3

5

Sulfate

mg/dm3

00

81

0.8

6

Hydrocarbonate

mg/dm3

no

140

 

7

Calcium

mg/dm3

80

38

0.2

8

Magnesium

mg/dm3

0

30

0.8

9

Rigidity

mg/dm3

no

4.4

 

0

Sodium and potassium sums

mg/dm3

 

50

 

1

Ions sum

mg/dm3

no

429

 
 

BIOGENIC AND INORGANIC SUBSTANCES

2

Ammonium Nitrogen

mg/dm3

.39

0.10

0.2

3

Nitrite nitrogen

mg/dm3

.02

0.001

0.1

4

Nitrogen nitrate

mg/dm3

.1

4.0

0.4

5

Nitrogen sum

mg/dm3

 

4.1

 

6

Phosphates

mg/dm3

no

0.002

 

7

Common phosphorus

mg/dm3

no

0.2

 

8

Common iron

mg/dm3

.1

0.08

0.8

9

Silicon

mg/dm3

no

1.2

 

0

Boron

mg/dm3

.017

0.011

0.6

1

Synthetic surfactants

mg/dm3

 

0.04

 
 

METALS

2

Cuprum

mg/dm3

.001

0.001

1.0

3

Zinc

mg/dm3

.01

0.002

0.2

4

Chrome (3+)

mg/dm3

.005

0

0

5

Chrome (6+)

mg/dm3

.02

0.004

0.2

6

Common chrome

mg/dm3

 

0.004

 

7

Manganese

mg/dm3

.01

0.001

0.1

8

Nickel

mg/dm3

.01

0.001

0.1

9

Hydrogen sulphide (H2S)

mg/dm3

 

0

 
 

ORGANIC SUBSTANCES

0

Oil products

mg/dm3

.05

0.03

0.6

1

Phenols

mg/dm3

.001

0.0007

0.7

 

Water quality indicators name

Unit of measure ment

MPC

Peretaskachannelpoint ”8.5 km,lowerfromAtyrau,2 kmhigherfrom AtyrauTEC''

01

.04.2019г

 

Actual concentrations.

Multiplicity

Exceeding MPC

 

Visual observations

     
 

Water temperature

0C

no

12

 
 

Hydrogen indicator

 

no

8.2

 
 

Oxygen saturation

%

no

56

 
 

Electrical conductivity

мкСм/см

 

393

 
 

Dissolved oxygen

mg/dm3

 

6.0

 
 

Biological oxygen consumption 5

       
 

Suspended substances

mg/dm3

no

386

 
 

Chromaticity

degree

no

39

 

0

Transparence

см

no

26

 

1

Smell

score

o

0

 

2

Carbon dioxide

mg/dm3

o

0

 

3

Chemical oxygen consumption

mg/dm3

o

19

 
 

MAIN IONS

4

Chlorides

mg/dm3

00

89

0.3

5

Sulfate

mg/dm3

00

78

0.8

6

Hydrocarbonate

mg/dm3

no

134

 

7

Calcium

mg/dm3

80

40

0.2

8

Magnesium

mg/dm3

0

30

0.7

9

Rigidity

mg/dm3

no

4.4

 

0

Sodium and potassium sums

mg/dm3

 

61

 

1

Ions sum

mg/dm3

нет

436

 
 

BIOGENIC AND INORGANIC SUBSTANCES

2

Ammonium Nitrogen

mg/dm3

.39

0.09

0.2

3

Nitrite nitrogen

mg/dm3

.02

0.0009

0.05

4

Nitrogen nitrate

mg/dm3

.1

4.3

0.5

5

Nitrogen sum

mg/dm3

 

4.4

 

6

Phosphates

mg/dm3

no

0.003

 

7

Common phosphorus

mg/dm3

no

0.3

 
 

Common iron

mg/dm3

 

0.09

0.9

8

   

.1

   

9

Silicon

mg/dm3

no

1.3

 

О

Boron

mg/dm3

.017

0.015

0.9

1

Synthetic surfactants

mg/dm3

 

0.03

 
 

METALS

2

Cuprum

mg/dm3

.001

0

0

3

Zinc

mg/dm3

.01

0.003

0.3

4

Chrome (3+)

mg/dm3

.005

0

0

5

Chrome (6+)

mg/dm3

.02

0.003

0.2

6

Common chrome

mg/dm3

 

0.003

 

7

Manganese

mg/dm3

.01

0.002

0.2

8

Nickel

mg/dm3

.01

0

0

9

Hydrogen sulphide (H2S)

mg/dm3

 

0

 
 

ORGANIC SUBSTANCES

О

Oil products

mg/dm3

.05

0.04

0.8

1

Phenols

mg/dm3

.001

0.0009

0.9

 

Bottom sediment quality indicators name

Unit of measure ment

Peretaskachannelpoint "8.5 km,IowerfromAtyrau,2 kmlowerfrom AtyrauTEC"

01.04.2019r

Actual concentrations.

 

Cuprum

mg/kg

0.3

 

Zinc

mg/kg

1.2

 

Nickel

mg/kg

0.7

 

Common chrome

mg/kg

0.01

 

Manganese

mg/kg

0.08

 

Cadmium

mg/kg

0.2

 

Plumbum

mg/kg

0.1

 

Oil products

mg/kg

0.03

 

Water quality indicators name

Unit of measure ment

MPC orm

проток Яик точка 11км ниже г. Атырау, выше с.Ракуша,0,5км ниже ответвления протока Яик

Z-

01.04.2019г

Actual I Multiplicity

       

concentrations.

Exceeding MPC

 

Visual observations

   

Unusual facts for watercourse not detected

 

Water temperature

0C

o

2.0

 
 

Hydrogen indicator

 

o

8.3

 
 

Oxygen saturation

%

o

51

 
 

Electrical conductivity

мкСм/см

 

301

 
 

Dissolved oxygen

mg/dm3

 

7.1

 
 

Biological oxygen consumption 5

       
 

Suspended substances

mg/dm3

no

315

 
 

Chromaticity

degree

no

38

 

0

Transparence

см

no

27

 

1

Smell

score

no

0

 

2

Carbon dioxide

mg/dm3

no

0

 

3

Chemical oxygen consumption

mg/dm3

no

20

 
 

MAIN IONS

4

Chlorides

mg/dm3

300

90

0.3

5

Sulfate

mg/dm3

100

75

0.8

6

Hydrocarbonate

mg/dm3

no

79

 

7

Calcium

mg/dm3

180

30

0.2

8

Magnesium

mg/dm3

40

31

0.8

9

Rigidity

mg/dm3

no

4.1

 

0

Sodium and potassium sums

mg/dm3

 

49

 

1

Ions sum

mg/dm3

no

358

 
 

BIOGENIC AND INORGANIC SUBSTANCES

2

Ammonium Nitrogen

mg/dm3

0.39

0.08

0.2

3

Nitrite nitrogen

mg/dm3

0.02

0.003

0.2

4

Nitrogen nitrate

mg/dm3

9.1

4.1

0.5

5

Nitrogen sum

mg/dm3

 

4.2

 

6

Phosphates

mg/dm3

no

0.002

 

7

Common phosphorus

mg/dm3

no

0.2

 

8

Common iron

mg/dm3

0.1

0.08

0.8

9

Silicon

mg/dm3

no

1.0

 

0

Boron

mg/dm3

0.01

7

0.011

0.6

1

Synthetic surfactants

mg/dm3

 

0.05

 
 

METALS

2

Cuprum

mg/dm3

0.00

1

0.001

1.0

3

Zinc

mg/dm3

0.01

0.003

0.3

4

Chrome (3+)

mg/dm3

0.00 5

0.001

0.2

5

Chrome (6+)

mg/dm3

0.02

0.002

0.1

6

Common chrome

mg/dm3

 

0.003

 

7

Manganese

mg/dm3

0.01

0.0025

0.3

8

Nickel

mg/dm3

0.01

0.001

0.1

9

Hydrogen sulphide (H2S)

mg/dm3

 

0

 
 

ORGANIC SUBSTANCES

0

Oil products

mg/dm3

0.05

0.03

0.6

1

Phenols

mg/dm3

0.00 1

0.0006

0.6

Conclusion

Some practical and theoretical questions of the toxicity of heavy metals are considered. A comparative analysis of the content of heavy metals in the Ural River and the Peretaska channel are given.

The main waterway of Atyrau city is the flat Ural river, which belongs to the highest category of fisheries water bodies. In addition, periodically drying up left-bank tributaries of the Urals - Peretaska, Bukharka rivers and right bank tributaries - the Baksai and Chernoyarka. The Ural River within the Atyrau region is characterized by its quality as "clean" (class 2, WPI = 0.6-0.7). Excess of MPC is noted on phenol (to 2 MPC) and on nitrogen nitrate (to 3.8 MPC). The dirtiest water in Ural River is observed at the confluence of Ilek River. Excess of MPC is noted on boron (20.3 MPC), six valent chromium (15.2 MPC), phenols (4 MPC), and nitrates (2.3 MPC). Then the river self-cleans and at the site of Uralsk city its characteristics vary from "clean" to "polluted". In hydrogeological terms, the territory is confined to the south-eastern part of the West Caspian artesian basin of the second order. The main load of anthropogenic impact, as a rule, is borne by aquifers, which are the first to be located on the surface. On the ANPZ LLP territory, such are the continental aquifers - modern and Upper Quaternary alluvial and alluvial-delta, aquifer thickness is 3-9 m, sediments are represented by fine-grained sands and sandy loams, sandy clays. The depth of groundwater from 0.5 to 6.0m.; Caspian Sea, Urals river and the Peretaska channel pollutions from LLP "ANPZ" through groundwater is excluded due to a small hydraulic slope, a very small slope of the terrain of small amount of precipitation, poor aquifer water cut and a relatively low filtration rate. The main potential sources of groundwater pollution currently include the evaporation pond on the left-bank part of Atyrau. The wastewater evaporator pond has existed for more than 60 years and receives wastewater not only from ANPZ LLP, but also discharges of industrial and public utilities from the entire left-bank part of Atyrau therefore, is among the most significant potential sources of influence on groundwater at present time.

According to the results of monitoring observations in 2014-2019. for the state of the first aquifer from the surface, in the area of the observation wells, it was shown that the chemical content in groundwater does not exceed the background. The content of petroleum products, phenols, heavy metals in groundwater samples according to monitoring studies do not exceed the MPC. Groundwater quality has been stable over the past 5 years.

 

Literature list

  1. IChemicaIIy hazardous water, https://online.zakon.kz/ Document/? Doc id=31200551.
  2. 2Experts predict a 30% decrease in water resources of Kazakhstan's rivers by 2020.https://www.zakon.kz/4514638-snizhenie-vodnykh-resursov-rek.html
  3. 3 Abdinov R., Murzagaliyev S. Analysis of technologies for cleaning domestic and industrial effluents at the karabatan area. Х.Досмұхамедов атындағы Атырау мемлекеттік университетінің Хабаршысы №4 (47) желтоқсан. - 154-159 б.
  4. 4 Daily hydrological Bulletin, https://kazhydromet.kz/ upload/ pagefiles/ malika/ справки/результаты %20aHanM3a%203a%2020.05.pdf.
Year: 2019
City: Atyrau
Category: Ecology