The paper is discussed about establishment the role of cultural aspects in the translation of movie titles as a factor influencing of the choice in translation strategy. To identify the main techniques and strategies of translation of film titles and to establish link between the title and the content, also to determine the adequacy of the translation of movie titles from English into Russian, Kazakh language. In addition, the title of the movie should be relatively clear content, which sum it, and easy to remember the shape. Translating movie titles, which is being the most important of ethno-linguistic problem is a serious scientific interest in the modern trends of globalization and intercultural communication.
Now cinema is one of the most popular areas of our lives. The popularity of the film often depends largely on its title, because a spectacular title is much easier to attract the viewer than the description of the content of the film. For our studies, we have seen several movies, translated according to the criteria of "man", "event", "space", "time".
The film industry is one of the most developed areas of art of our time, every year hundreds of films rolled out in the world, whose creators have set themselves goals such as presenting a wide audience of his unique vision of what is happening around the expression of personal opinions and experiences about a particular genera I-social problems, as well as the extraction of considerable benefit from the results of their work.
All of the above is possible only under the condition that a sufficient number of people who have not been involved in the creation of the film, watch it later. In turn, an important role in this is to correctly formulate the name of the movie, while reflecting its essence and attracts the attention of the audience. On a par with the original title for the film's success at the international box office, which affects a good and correct its translation into the languages of the countries in which will be implemented hire pictures in future. [1, 22].
At present, the cinema is one of the most popular areas of our lives. The popularity of the film is often largely determined by its title, because a spectacular header is much easier to attract the viewer than the description of the content of the film. Psychological studies show that about eighty percent of the readers of newspapers and magazines only focus on titles. The same is true of the movie. Viewer by name determines their attitude to the film, decides whether or not to watch it.
The name is a kind of success, and its effective immediately affects the perception of the box office. The authors try to give a compact and catchy names to their work, because the title is intended to attract the maximum number of audience. In addition, the name of the movie should be relatively clear content, which sums it, and easy to remember the shape.
Translation of the title of the film is also very complex and demanding task. This translation may be called "commercial", as it is designed to achieve a specific marketing, commercial success of the film. In this case, the translator should act as a mediator between the texts in the original language and the target language. Adapting the name of the artwork or film-specific receiving environment, the translator can do better, more communicative effect.
Drafting and translation of the title is a very difficult process. It is important to choose the right structure for the title of this film genre, decide whether in the name of any stylistic figures or trails. Need to make a concise, the attractive title that reflects the content of the film. It should also be skillfully translate it into Russian without losing connection with the content of the film.
Ideally, the name is the starting point of everything that happens on the screen determines the basic image of the film. But, unfortunately, often the Russian version of the title is largely loses the original title. Translators often neglect the basic principles of compliance with the header content of the movie to take care of the commercial success of the film at the box office.
In the literature you can find a lot of information about the headlines or advertising. They studied quite extensively and completely. But the movie title is not considered as a separate unit.
Therefore, in this paper we consider the classification structure, the authors have developed for newspaper headlines, and use them to analyze the names of English- speaking movies. Since we consider the movie titles and headings texts as identical structure, in our work, the terms "title" and "name" of the film are equivalent.
The classification is based on A.V. Lamzin the relation with the traditional title to isolate the components of the work: composition and thematic issues of the plot, the characters system, parts, time and place of action (description). In all of these types of titles can meet design with sophisticated semantics: it may be symbolic, metaphorical, proverbs, citation title [2, 88].
L.G. Babenko offers a completely different classification. It distributes titles on cognitive and thematic principle characteristic of compiling dictionaries, thesauri, e.g., headings are categorized as "man" is Gandhi (Richard Attenborough, 1982), "time" - The day after Tomorrow (Roland Emmerich, 2004), "space" - An American Haunting (Courtney Solomon, 2006), "event" - The War of the Worlds (Steven Spielberg, 2005), "objects" Chocolate (Lasse Hallstrom, 2000).
Category of "man", "time" and "space" presented in this classification as a universal triad underlying any of the artistic text, including and title. And in terms of "event" and "objects" constructed action in the work, so they also stand out as a leading base classification. [3, 62]
Title is the first signal that will occur, expressed in a concise, concentrated form the main idea or theme of the work. The concept of the title is very simple. So, S.I. Ozhegov defines the title as "the name of a product or its parts". [4, 943]
However, despite its apparent simplicity, the title has a complex structure and plays a huge role in the creation of the unity of literary or artistic work.
In linguistic terms of the title is the name of the text in terms of semiotics is the first character of the text. L.I. Zakharova defines that there are two main functions of the title: a signal (attracting attention) and informative (gives an idea about the subject or content ofthe publication of the film). [5, 24].
According to the Encyclopedic Dictionary, the movie is a "collection of photographic images (frames), consecutive on film-related single plot and designed to be played on the screen; work of movie" [6, 227].
In our written work we deal not only with original proper name, the films' titles, but with their Kazakh and Russian equivalents, variants of translation as well. Earlier we've discussed our translation units and their peculiarities, the films' titles. We should say that the definition is proper for the Kazakh equivalents. It means that there is no need this point ofthe translation process.
Translation difficulties of movie titles is that we had to choose between synonym versions. We had to find the most convenient translation, which at the same time to be close to Kazakh audience.
The following title series: «Lost». Linguol2 dictionary translates it this way:
Lost: жоғалған, қираған (сынған), әлсіз, өлген, адасқан, сақталмаған, ысырап қылу, босқа, апатқа ұшыраған, сәтсіздік, бедеу, ұмытылған, белгісіз, бүлінген, ұяттай жұрдай, іс-түссіз жоғалған [7, 67].
Here are the possible translations of the name of the film: 1.«Апатқа ұшырағандар»; 2.«Хабар-ошарсыз кеткендер»; 3.«Жоғалғандар»; 4.«Ұмытылғандар»; 5. «Жоғалғандар»; 6. «Белгісіз жандар»; 7. «Бүлінгендер»; 8. «Бекерге»; 9.«Сақталмағандар»; 1О.«Бедеу»; 11.«Сәтсіздікке ұшырағандар»; 12.«Ұяттан жұрдайлар»; 13.«Ысырап қылу»; 14.«Әлсіздер»; 15.«Сағы сынғандар»; 16. «Қиралған»; 17. «Өмірден өткендер».
Generally we have 17 versions of the movie titles. But the official Kazakh translation of "Tipi қалу". Type of translation is Transliteration or replacement.
The difficult in translation of this title of the film is its history. The idea of this film was taken from a famous American reality show where people lived on a desert island. This reality show is called "Последний герой", shown on Russian television shortly before the film. Only by analogy with the show "Последний герой" in Russia film called "Остаться в живых", the main title of music reality show. Despite this, some of the possible translations may also exist, such as «Потерпевшие крушение», «Пропавшие» или «Потерянные».
Among the titles of films analyzed, to the first block of translation difficulties include the following titles:
Тынық Дон (Sergey Gerasimov, 1958) - And Quiet Flows the Don. According to the English-Kazakh dictionary of V.K. Mueller - 1)Дон (Spanish title); 2) Spanish; 3) faculty member, member of college (in Oxford and Cambridge). That is the literal translation of the Quiet Don in the English speaking audience, which would have had a completely different associations.
Seven Pounds (Gabriele Muccino, 2008) - Жеті өмір. The literal translation of "жеті фунт" is an allusion to the play of Shakespeare's «Венецианский купец», "Венециалық көпес", which is the cunning moneylender Shylock the Jew, under the terms of the bill, has the right to cut a pound of flesh from the body of the Venetian merchant Antonio if he did not pay back the loan on time.
Mirror, mirror (Tarsem Singh, 2012) - Белоснежка: Семь гномов. The original name is also an allusion of the Brothers Grimm fairy tale "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs", when the Queen comes to magic mirror and asks: «Mirror, mirror on the wall, who is the fairest one of all?».
The feature of the film is the subject of culture, which to some extent is a reflection of a certain view of the world and the creator of the films, and Iinguocultural the society to which it belongs. Language is one of the most important components of the world picture of a society, reflecting the perception of the reality of its speakers. That's why the quality of any type Oftranslation is of paramount importance.
The title ofthe film is an essential component of its overall artistic value, which in translation may be radically different from the original version as a stylistically and conceptually, that due to the nature of understanding of various phenomena different peoples.
Quality translation of movie titles is a serious problem for a specialist who deals with them, despite the brevity of this linguistic unit. Movie translation is very important in creative and commercial translation industry in our time and our country. Although Kazakh cinema has reached a level in excess of the number of films produced in recent years, the number of foreign films in cinemas, on TV and on disks is still very large. And the majority of new products, at least, Hollywood, mandatory translated into Russian and Kazakh [8, 217].
Title simultaneously performs the following functions:
- signal (draws the reader's attention);
- informative (gives an idea about the meaning ofthe film);
- meaningful (transmits the main theme or idea) makes the connection header with all the contents ofthe movie;
- thematic (title is the main active person or group of persons, an event which is the center of action, time and place of action [9, 74].
Title is a way to give the viewer the opportunity to glance their way, whether it is necessary to watch this film. On this basis, the header should be characterized by accuracy of expression meaning, that the film is clear and simple form. It should be clear to any reader. Attracting the attention of the audience, any title of the film should be easily understood, be read without difficulty.
Today in our country a very large number of films are imported from around the world, and their original names must be translated, as presented in a foreign language. The film's title is an important part of the transmission of meaning and content of the film, and the translator is to convey tighter color titles as in the original.
Movie is one of the youngest and at the same time one of the most popular arts. The potential audience is primarily draws attention to the fact that is interested in, and therefore the name is a landmark in the selection ofthe film.
Anyway the title still is the face of any object and it should be considered as the most significant and important and be translated in the last turn, in order not to fail its main distinguishing function.
The analysis of the translation of movie titles shows that the choice of a strategy of translation affected by a number of reasons. We believe that the choice of translation strategies is a prerequisite for becoming the presence or absence of cultural component.
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