As the title implies the article describes the consideration of the issue of teaching letter and written speech in the general education school, the nature of these types of speech activity and their characteristics.
In recent years, the role of writing in learning a foreign language is gradually increasing, and, in a sense, the letter is beginning to be seen as a reserve in improving the effectiveness of teaching a foreign language. One cannot ignore the practical importance of written speech communication in the light of modern means of communication, such as e-mail, the Internet and others. In the latter case, the letter as a type of speech communication develops on the basis of only authentic material.
Foreign internships for students, graduate students and young scientists assume the ability to record in a foreign language, compose and complete a questionnaire, answer questionnaire questions, write an application for admission to study or work, write a short or expanded autobiography, write personal or business letters using the form speech etiquette of native speakers, including the form of business etiquette.
Writing and written speech in the methodology of teaching a foreign language are not only a means of teaching, but more and more as a goal of teaching a foreign language. A letter is a technical component Ofwritten speech. Written speech along with speaking is the so-called productive (expressive) type of speech activity and is expressed in the fixation of certain content by graphic signs. The psychophysical basis of written speech is the interaction of the motor, visual and auditory-analytical analyzers. The reliance on all analyzers in training gives a much greater effect. According to psychologists, the material heard is assimilated by 10%, seen by 20%, heard and seen by 30%, recorded by 50%, by pronouncing by 70%, while learning another by 90%. Psychologists believe that oral speech is the basis of written speech. Both speaking and writing can be traced from the intention (what to say) to the selection of the necessary means (what words are necessary, how to combine them in the utterance), and before the realization of the idea by means of language orally or in writing. 
Despite the fact that the role of written speech has been much spoken and written lately, the letter as a productive kind of foreign speech activity still occupies a rather modest place in the lesson on foreign language. Analyzing the mechanisms of the functioning of the types of speech activity, psychology, the Methodists come to the conclusion that there are similarities and differences between writing and speaking. Thus, N.D. Galskova notes the similarity of the so-called internal speech mechanism, i.e. internal plan of the future text [2, p. 37]. With a written and oral utterance, the same transitions between externally expressed and internally pronounced linguistic forms function. In the process of writing, a transition is made from a word spoken aloud or to himself, to the word apparently. When speaking, from the word spoken to himself, to the word spoken aloud.
Not denying the similarity between writing and speaking, E.Solovova distinguishes a number of differences between them . A written statement is a monologue, built quite fully. In the absence of direct communication, the writer unfolds the utterance in order to avoid misunderstanding of his thoughts. In this regard, the letter contains additional information, definitions that specify the characteristics. We strive to present the information consistently and logically, clearly and concisely, because there will be no possibility to change anything, to repeat and to explain what has been written.
As you know, the letter is closely connected with reading. In their system there is one graphical system of language. If you correctly determine the goals of writing and written speech, consider the role of writing in the development of other skills, use exercises that are completely appropriate for the purpose, perform these exercises at the appropriate stage of training, then oral speech gradually becomes richer and more logical.
The letter plays an auxiliary role in developing a grammatical skill, when performing written tasks from simple copying to tasks that require a creative approach, which creates the necessary conditions for memorization. Without reliance on the letter, it is difficult for students to retain in their memory lexical and grammatical material.
The whole system of language and conditionally-speech exercises, performed in writing, refers to the educational written speech. Written statements, compositions, creative dictations, drawing up plans and theses for communication on a given topic, writing personal or business letters, that is, written stories on given situations, refer to communicative written speech. In other words - this is a written speech exercise on the studied or related topic of conversational practice.
Written speech is regarded as a creative communicative skill, understood as the ability to present in writing their thoughts. To do this, one must have spelling and calligraphic skills, the ability to construct and arrange in writing a speech work composed in internal speech, as well as the ability to choose adequate lexical and grammatical units.
The teaching of written speech includes various kinds of speech exercises: speech exercises for teaching writing; writing and speech exercises for working with printed text; writing and speech exercises, conditioned by the process of reading, listening and speaking.
Written speech exercises for working with printed text, in addition to the exercises known to all, can contain, as E.A. Maslyko  thinks, the following:
- rewrite the text, excluding from it minor words and sentences;
- write a written message to a potential, real or imaginary addressee, using the content of the letter;
- prepare a plan-summary of the oral presentation, using a selection of texts on the topic or problem.
In reading (viewing, familiarizing, studying) interest is, in the opinion of E.A. Maslyko, written exercises like:
- find in the text and write out the necessary information;
- make a written review of the topic or problem, using different sources in a foreign language;
- make annotations for the articles of the special journal (collection);
- by analogy with the article (its structure), prepare material for the intended publication in a special journal;
- in the process of reading the literature (texts), make written notes for subsequent work with the material.
In the perception Offoreign speech by ear (listening), students can make notes:
- compose a summary of the audio text according to a preplanned plan (for keywords);
- make notes to the printed reference signals while listening to the audio text;
- in accordance with the given communicative situation (task), extract information from the audio text and write it down.
You can use free dictation. In this case, the teacher reads audio text on paragraphs, students write down what they remember; to facilitate the assignment, a plan or keywords are given in advance.
In the perception of a written speech, students draw up a list of questions to be discussed with a real or imaginary interlocutor, abstracts, select a written lecture on cards, draw up code books, tables for oral communication on a particular topic (problem) or situation.
The practice of writing allows you to arrange the transcription of printed text or audio text from memory, according to plan or make written suggestions for solving a particular issue or a specific problem. The cycle of lessons on the topic concludes with homework (self-dictation - a written retelling of a part of the text or the entire text).
The ability to present your thoughts in a written language in a foreign language should be developed consistently and constantly. There are a number of reproductive and productive exercises solving this problem. For example, exercises offered by the German methodologist Gerhard Neiner , are composed in a certain sequence from simple to complex, from reproduction to drawing up one's own opinion, position. All exercises are performed in writing. Interest, in our opinion, is, for example, such tasks:
- restore the beginning and end of history;
- restore the dialogue on individual "guiding" replicas;
- change the appearance of the text (message to the conversation, dialogue to the description);
- describe the ambiguous situation in different texts and dialogues;
- explain the contradiction between textual and illustrative information;
- answer the letter with a letter, telephone conversation with a conversation, etc.;
- choose keywords that lead to a certain pre-known result, and others.
As G. Neiner believes, for creative writing can be used business texts of an informational nature. Students are asked questions of a personal nature. The distinctive features of these exercises are that they are carried out by all means in writing, in content are of a speech creative or semi-creative nature, interesting and fascinating for both students and teachers. Poems of famous poets are played, monograms are used, collectively funny stories are written, and letters are sent to fictional characters.
As E.I. Passov , one should remember about such a reserve as a homework, which, regardless of the goal, the trainees perform first of all in writing, beginning with the recording of words and ending with a retelling or a message on the topic. All that must be said in the lesson must first be recorded in writing. E.I. Passov believes that the letter should be dealt with, because the time spent pays off.
Based on the foregoing, I can conclude that the final result of a literate and properly planned approach to teaching in the field of letter learning is a high level of literacy of students, fluency in the language and style of presentation, the ability to consistently convey both your own thoughts and perceived from external sources.
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- Galskova N.D., Gez N.I. The theory of teaching foreign languages - Moscow: "Akademiya" Publishing Center, 2004.
- Solovova E.N. Methods of teaching foreign languages: a basic course of lectures. Moscow: Education, 2002.
- Maslyko E.A. Handbook of the teacher of a foreign language. - Minsk, 2004.
- Neuner G. Methoden des fremdsprachlichen Deutschunterrichts. - Kassel, 1992.
- Passov E.I. A lesson of a foreign language in high school. - Moscow, 1988.