The differences between leadership and management

Over the recent decades, the UK government has defined new working roles and responsibilities for headteachers and senior staff to drive up not only educational standards [5], but also to enhance the reputations of their schools [11]. As a result, the UK's school leaders have come to lead their schools through the practice of educational management and educational leadership. "Leadership and management entail a unique set of activities or functions", as stated by Lunenburg [8,p.l]. However, evidence from research suggests that school leaders experience complexities in finding the balance between the functions of management and leadership [2]. In order to clarify this issue, hence, it is important to understand some differences between the functions of leadership and management.

Western research suggests that although leadership and management are different in their nature, (Kotter, 1990a; 1990b, as cited in [8], nevertheless both concepts may overlap each other in relation to the notion of 'administration' [4]. This view is supported by, Kotterman [7], who argues that both practices are the same, because they are involved (a) setting direction, (b) encouraging people and (c) aligning resources. Commenting on the above, it seems that management and leadership are similar, because their functions entail working with people to effect change through certain activities. However, Zaleznik (1977, as cited in [8], stated that only a leader advocates (a) change, (b) new approaches, and (c) movement [9]. Indeed, the leadership process creates change, which is firstly recognized in implementing new leadership strategies. In contrast, management process advocates (a) stability, (b) implementation, (c) order, and (d) effectiveness, [6]. For example, Young & Dulewicz summarize the view towards change, as follows: “conceptualizing what needs to be done, aligning people and resources, taking an active role, creating success” [13,p.18]. Another example is seen in Figure 1 (see below), it although provides the broad conceptual differences of both practices.

Figure 1. Comparisons between Leadership and Management [8].

Category Leadership Management

Thinking Process

Focuses on people

Looks outward

Focuses on things

Looks inward

Goal Setting

Articulates vision

Creates the future

Sees the big picture

Executes plans

Improves the present

Sees the details

Employee Relations

Empowers

Colleagues

Trust and develop people

Controls

Colleagues

Directs and coordinates

Operation

Does the right things

Creates change

Serves colleagues

Does things right Manage change Serve colleagues

Governance

Uses influence

Uses conflict oriented on collective methods of interaction

Acts decisively

Uses authority

Avoids conflict

Acts responsibly

In emphasizing the difference between leadership and management, it is clear that today's leaders influence groups and individuals by directing their efforts towards desired objects [10], while managers deal with the budget of an organization, (Kotter, 1990, as cited in [7]). This derived distinction is important, but Bush claims that the most important is when two practices are closely in line with the expectation of the purposes of their organization [3]. More recently, he summarized in the following quotation [3, p.391):

"Unless this link between purpose and management is clear and close, there is a danger of 'managerialism', "a stress on procedures at the expense of educational purpose and values".

The above quotation provides a clear view towards the leadership and management functions. Therefore, a broad view of the difference between leadership and management is clear. This suggests that the practices of leadership and management should be oriented towards the school's purpose, because the activity of the leaders and managers within the school is carried out for the sake of its achievements. Hence, the aim of the organization lies at the core of the structure of both management and leadership, but the realization of this will be depend on the combination of their skills and competency. Managers will encourage the school's aim by the effective planning, organizing, staffing, and controlling processes (Fayol,1916, as cited in [9], while the leader will do school leading through their vision [1] and distribution of roles in different settings (Day et al., 2004, as cited in [12]).

Thus, several conclusions can be drawn from both the statements presented above and from the information in Figure 2.2.

The first difference is that both practices have different approaches in relation to leading people. The second difference is viewed in the lack of vision and influence in the concept of management. This suggests that a manager comes to change (success) through their position (authority), while the leader comes to the change by relying on their colleagues. For this, the leader will support, encourage, and care about people through empowering trust between everyone. As Bennis (2007, as cited [9,p.l4]) declares that "managers are people who do things right and leaders are people who do

Х.Досмұхамедов атындағы Атырау МУ Хабаршысы - Вестник Атырауского государственного университета имени Х.Досмухамедова № 1(48), 2018 the right thing". Thus, this statement is one of the clearest notions of the difference between leadership and management.

Education sector provides its managers with legitimate authority to lead, but there is no assurance that they will be able to lead effectively considering many educational complexities and changes. The complexities and changes are coming from the government, education policy makers because of globalization and competition between nations. This short research has revealed that educational institutes, such as schools, colleges and universities need both strong and strategic leadership and strong and effective management for optimal effectiveness. In today's complex, dynamic workplace, modern and technological education needs leaders who could solve not only the organizations' difficulties, but also could inspire and persuade organization members. Education also needs managers to assist in developing and maintaining a smoothly functioning workplace. However, for this, the functions of both practices must be adapted and evaluated by creative leaders.

Conclusion

Education sector provides its managers with legitimate authority to lead, but there is no assurance that they will be able to lead effectively considering many educational complexities and changes. The complexities and changes are coming from the government, education policy makers because of globalization and competition between nations. This short research has revealed that educational institutes, such as schools, colleges and universities need both strong and strategic leadership and strong effective management for optimal effectiveness. In today's complex, dynamic workplace, modern and technological education needs leaders who could solve not only the organizations' difficulties, but also could inspire and persuade organization members. Education also needs managers to assist in developing and maintaining a smoothly functioning workplace. However, for this, the functions of both practices must be adapted and evaluated by creative leaders.

 

References:

  1. Bush, T., Bell. L, and Middlewood, D. (2010). The principles of educational leadership & management (2nd ed.). London: Sage Publications Ltd.
  2. Bush, T. (2008). From management to leadership: Semantic or meaningful change? Educational ManagementAdministration & Leadership, 36(2), 271-288.
  3. Bush, T. (2007). Educational leadership and management: Theory, policy, and practice. South African Journal of Education, 27(3), 391-406.
  4. Coleman, M. (2005). 'Theories and practices in Leadership: An introduction' in Coleman. M. and Earley, P. (ed.), Leadership and Management in education:CuItures, Change +Context. Oxford: OVP.
  5. Hall, D. J. (2013). The strange case of the emergence Ofdistributed leadership in schools in England. Educational Review, 65(4), 467-487.
  6. Hafford-Letchfield, T., Leonard, K., Begum, N., & Chick, N. F. (2008). Leadership and management in social care. London: Sage. Publications Ltd.
  7. Kotterman, J. (2006). Leadership versus management: what’s the difference?. The Journal for Quality and Participation, 29(2), 13.
  8. Lunenburg, F. C. (2011). Leadership versus management: A key distinction—at least in theory. International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, 14(1), 1-4.
  9. Northouse, P. (Ed.) (2016). Leadership. Theory and practice (7th ed.). London: SAGE Publication Inc.
  10. Popovici, V. (2012). Similarities and differences between management and leadership. Annals-Economy Series, 2,126-135
  11. Supovitz, J. (2015). School leadership lessons from england: Over the past 15 years, england has carried out a three-stage effort that shored up school leadership ranks, an area that Traditionally has been remarkably thin in the U.S. Phi Delta Kappan, 97 (3), 38.
  12. Spicker, P. (2012). "Leadership": A perniciously vague concept. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 25(1), 34-47.
  13. Young, M., & Dulewicz, V. (2008). Similarities and differences between leadership and management: High-performance competencies in the british royal navy. British Journal of Management, 19(1), 17-32.
Year: 2018
City: Atyrau
Category: Pedagogy