Abstract. The reform of the education system and the transition to the updated content of education places special emphasis on the development of skills and abilities of independent work and critical thinking of younger schoolchildren. The peculiarity of teaching foreign-language oral speech to elementary school students in the conditions of the updated content of education is clarified in this scientific article. The purpose of this study is theoretical justification and practical creation of a model for teaching foreign language oral speech to primary school students in the context of updated educational content. Furthermore, a system of exercises for the development of foreign language oral speech skills was proposed, and its efficacy was tested with elementary school students during experimental work.
Our state's educational system is experiencing significant changes today to keep up with the new educational patterns, forms, and methods. The content of education is being revised, and the traditional reproductive teaching style is being phased out, along with the classes that have been liberated from the monotony of the educational process and the uniformity of the educational system.
According to the first President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, N. A. Nazarbayev's address, the country's development is in full swing, and the country's development must begin with the modernization of school education. Kazakhstan's children are the country's future leaders, they will have to build our government and lead it to progress. As a result, the "On Education" Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan was revised in 2015. Therefore, there is a statutory act that governs the gradual transition to modern school material .
According to Gilazova G. V., due to these changes, the creation and growth of the student's personality is now given special attention. The school should prepare a graduate with a developed intellect, a high level of functional literacy. Graduates of the school are capable and eager to pursue their education throughout their lives. A graduate who understands the value of studying as a means of planning for future work, who recognizes their uniqueness and is ready for self-development, self-determination, self-realization, as well as the formation life plans. In addition, there is a bias towards the ability to think critically, using various modern methods that can help to activate the critical thinking of students and their independence. Since one of the defects of traditional learning is the focus on memorizing, and not on thinking .
As a research problem, traditional education, in contrast to modern education, utterly ignores the principle of "freedom". Students in the conventional learning model are unable to express their personal views or make decisions. Also, they are unable to assess their own skills, choose their own solution course, or learn from their mistakes on their own. There is no way to adjust the speed of the learning process to accommodate various psychological characteristics of students.
Consequently, the relevance of this scientific work lies in the lack of knowledge of the problem of improving foreign language oral speech in the framework of the updated content of education.
The purpose of this study is theoretical justification and practical creation of a model for teaching foreign language oral speech to primary school students in the context of updated educational content. Previously, there were activities in traditional training that did not improve independence and critical thinking in children, both of which are essential in the development of foreign language oral expression.
For achieving the purpose, firstly, there should be indicated the essence of the concept of "updated content of education”. As a consequence, the revised educational content is the transformation of the secondary education model, including its structure, content, teaching, upbringing approaches, and the implementation of a radically new framework for assessing students’ outcomes. A series of activities within the context of updated educational content are aimed at establishing an educational space that is conducive to the individual's harmonious creation and growth .
The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On Education" was amended and supplemented in 2015. As a result, there is a statutory act that governs the gradual shift to a new model of school education, dual training, and getting first working profession in colleges is free, the transition from state certification to independent accreditation of colleges and universities, and etc. .
Since 2016, our country's educational system has undergone major changes. This is an irreversible phenomenon brought on by the complexities of science and technology modernization, as well as the knowledge space. An individual should be mobile and active, able to quickly shift their professional focus, and capable of mastering rapidly evolving technologies .
Education in Kazakhstan has undertaken a series of transformations:
- Updated educational content will be installed in all grades. As part of the introduction of the 12-year educational structure in republican schools, revised secondary education curriculum was gradually implemented in the eighth grades from 2016 to the first, second, third, fifth, sixth, and seventh grades. The modern curriculum was created based on the Nazarbayev intellectual schools' experience.
- Grades 4, 9, and 10 moved to the new model of education in the 2017 academic year. In the academic year 2020-2021, there will be 11 grade ;
- There were the assessment requirements, summative assessment for a section (SAS), and the electronic diary. Criteria-based evaluation is an innovative method of assessing student achievement. This form of evaluation helps you to determine the student's personal accomplishments, as well as his strengths and weaknesses, which you will need to address;
- There was a five-day decrease in academic load and homework time. The Republic of Kazakhstan's Ministry of Education and Science advises educational institutions to reduce the total number of hours of instruction, or educational load. Presently primary schools will study for 2-3 hours less (1-2 and 3-4 grades, respectively), the load was decreased by 3 hours from 5th to 7th grade, and by 4 hours from 8th grade. This decrease would occur as a result of improved curriculum and fewer hours allotted to subjects like algebra, Kazakh, English, national history, literature, and computer science. The types of work that children did in physical education classes were changed: they were able to practice choreography for an hour and play sport games;
- There was transition to the Latin alphabet and the state language of instruction. Changes in the national humanitarian plan for societal growth would have an impact on the school as well. Gradually, the proportion of subjects read in Kazakh increased in educational institutions where training was conducted in Russian;
- In primary school there were new fields such as "Natural Science", "Information and Communication Technologies" (beginning in the third grade), and "Knowledge of the Environment" that will be packed with new materials;
- It was suggested that the discipline "History of Kazakhstan" was studied concurrently with the subject "World History" beginning in the fifth grade, rather than the sixth. When studying the topic "Kazakhstan's history," students must not only understand our country's development path, but also its position in the global world and in the history of humanity as a whole. This will serve as the foundation for cultivating a sense of respect, affection for the motherland, and Kazakhstani patriotism;
- A new discipline as "Global Perspectives and Project Work" was also introduced, and is now taught in Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools. School students should consider this difficult, multi-faceted, large-scale process of significant change, which affects all aspects of people's lives in an age of global peace. The aim of the discipline is to prepare students for a future life in which they will be able to use research skills, critical thinking skills, and prove and defend their own point of view;
- Our country adopted the Roadmap for a New Model of Education in 2015, which consists of specific measures to improve the competencies enacted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's member countries: the opportunity to cooperate with information, modern technology, and expertise, as well as the ability to collaborate in a team with partners and society. The roadmap provides for a phased implementation of 12-year schooling, with the framework given by increasing the number of classes in primary school (grades 1-5) while retaining basic secondary and general secondary education terminology .
The above-mentioned improvements in educational content that have occurred or will occur in the near future will aid in establishing students' identities as understanding, thought, informed, and autonomous.
These changes are caused by time itself. Competitive experts who are characterized by their unconventional thinking and making objective decisions are in high demand in the field of modern technology. For this reason, it was necessary to alter educational practices in order to teach students how to gain knowledge individually and apply it effectively in practice. Also creating a willingness to learn and encouraging people to continue their education throughout their lives.
Before the new model of education, the main focus was on developing memory, improving the ability to "read" and increasing the amount of information. Therefore, the specifics of modern teaching of foreign oral speech to primary school students is the development of critical thinking, so that in the future children can clearly express their thoughts, use a foreign language in a real situation (i.e., respond adequately in any communicative situations), independently solve problems, etc.
On the basis of this specificity, when learning a foreign language in primary classes, students' competence in the following areas should be formed:
- communicative (the skill of effective cooperation with other people);
- self-organization (the ability to set goals, plan, fully use personal resources);
- information (the ability to search, analyze, transform, apply information to solve problems);
- self-education (readiness to design and implement your own educational trajectory throughout your life, ensuring success and competitiveness).
Additionally, one of the main tasks of the updated content of education is to develop oral speech in students, since teaching children oral speech skills is the main condition for the successful development of critical thinking. Therefore, one of the ways to develop oral speech can be modeling, which reveals all the possibilities for the development of critical thinking, contributes to the disclosure of the potential of each student and creates conditions for each child to become successful in the modern world.
The term "modeling" in the encyclopedic literature is defined as a set of methods for studying phenomena and objects using various analogs and conventional images. It is on the models that the most essential properties of objects and phenomena, the connections of the studied processes are reproduced. The models make it possible to adequately assess, manage the development of the process and predict its subsequent use .
As for the model of foreign language oral speech development of primary school students within the updated content of education, it is represented by the following components (Figure №1):
- Purpose block
- Content block
- Technological block
- Evaluation block
The purpose block of this model consists of the goal and objectives. The purpose of the research process is to develop the skills of foreign language oral speech in primary school students in the context of the updated content of education. We proceed from the understanding of the goal as an ideal, consciously planned result of teaching foreign language oral speech on the basis of the updated content of education. This goal is realized by solving the tasks set:
1) To determine the specifics of teaching foreign language oral speech to younger students;
2) To develop a system of exercises in order to develop the skills of foreign language oral speech in primary school students.
The content block includes the document "On the approval of the state mandatory standards of education at all levels of education" and the Bloom’s taxonomy.
As for the types of oral speech activity, they are divided into two types: dialog speech and monologue speech. For the development of the two main types of speech activity, exercises were presented in this model. The simplest type of oral speech is a dialogue, i.e. a conversation supported by interlocutors who jointly discuss and resolve any issues. Colloquial speech is characterized by replicas exchanged by speakers, repetition of phrases and individual words for the interlocutor, questions, additions, explanations, the use of hints
that are understandable only to the speaker, a variety of auxiliary words and interjections. The features of this speech largely depend on the degree of mutual understanding of the interlocutors, their relationships.
Regarding the definition of dialogic skills in the psychological and pedagogical literature, based on the definition of the skills of I. V. Dubrovina, Yu.Ya. Neyer, G. M. Kojaspirova and A. Yu. Kojaspirov, the following was highlighted: dialogic skills are the skills of mastering the subject of the method of performing dialogic actions that provide a set of acquired knowledge and skills .
There are preparatory and truly communicative exercises for the development of dialogic speech. Preparatory exercises include:
1) conditional-communicative aspect exercises, the purpose of which is to activate the use of the studied material in speech and, on this basis, to acquire the skills of active possession of the required lexical, phonetic, grammatical phenomena in their unity;
2) conditional-communicative replica exercises. The conditional-communicative aspects include:
- imitative exercises. As V. L. Skalkin notes, these exercises are not considered as mechanical, since they are based on speech acts common in real conditions – children repeating statements after adults, asking again, repeating in connection with surprise, inattention. These exercises involve the construction of a replica by analogy, when the syntactic structure and lexical composition of the motivational replica are completely repeated. Such imitation allows, among other things, to overcome phonetic difficulties: pronouncing and rhythmic-intonation. For example, - I get up at 7 o’clock. And what about you? – I get up at 7 o’clock too;
- substitution exercises performed to develop the skills of selecting and combining language units. For example, "To open a magic cafe, you need to find out what Winnie-the-Pooh likes most. First I'll ask, says the teacher, "Do you like cakes, Winni-the-Pooh?" Then the questions are asked by all the children in turn, forming and formulating their thoughts, and not repeating after the teacher or each other: "Do you like fish?", Winnie-the-Pooh: “No, I don't” and etc. Substitution exercises can also be used when teaching dialogic speech based on a sample dialog. For example: "Insert the missing words into the dialog and act it out»;
- transformational exercises. Students to perform a speech task transform the replica of the interlocutor, which is expressed in changing the order of words, the person or tense of the verb, the case or number of the noun, etc. The purpose of these exercises is to develop the skills of replication .
A replica refers to individual statements that are interconnected in a dialogue, and the mechanism of the relationship of replicas is called replication. A remark in the composition of a dialogic unity is not identical to a sentence. Replication skills are understood as the ability to respond with an initiative replica to the proposed communication situation and to give a response replica to the partner's initial replica, taking into account the communication situation.
Thus, replica exercises include exercises aimed at learning how to respond to the interlocutor's remark, and exercises that stimulate students ' statements. Let's illustrate this with examples of exercises, including game exercises:
- public opinion poll. The purpose of this exercise is to interview as many students as possible in the classroom to find out their opinions or to get answers to questions. For example: "Poll your friends: who eats and drinks what at breakfast, lunch and dinner, fill out the table»;
- filling in the information. The basis of this exercise is the technique of information disequilibrium, which assumes a difference in the amount of information. By asking questions, students fill in the missing information;
- "Streams". Students are divided into pairs and play "Streams" to the music. When the music suddenly stops, the students immediately drop their hands, and between the two pairs there is a prisoner – a student who did not have time to run through the stream. He can free himself by answering the questions of the four guards;
- “Tic-tac-toe”. The teacher draws a tic-tac-toe field on the blackboard. The class is divided into two teams. The teacher draws the students' attention to the cards containing the questions. The teams take turns selecting a card, and one of the players answers the question. If the sentence is made correctly, the team puts a cross or a zero, respectively. If there are errors in the sentence, the team skips the move. The winner is the team that is the first to fill in all the tic-tac-toe lines horizontally, vertically, or diagonally;
- "Ball game". The host throws the ball and comes up with a statement. The person who catches the ball must respond with a cliché phrase that fits this statement;
- "Who will answer the question?". All participants are assigned a number. Each player rolls the dice twice. The first time it shows the number of the envelope with the statement or question, and the second time it shows the number of the player who should respond with a cliché phrase to the statement or question .
Conditional-communicative replica exercises include the following:
- Ask your friend... Use the following samples.
- Advise your friend... Use the following samples.
- Restore the missing replicas. What do you think might follow...?
- React to the phrase... according to the situation.
- Add cliché phrases to the dialog.
- Choose from the suggested replicas that match this one.
- Expand the dialog (for example, explain the reasons for refusal).
- Restore the missing replicas. What do you think was the previous remark?
- Complete the dialogue in accordance with the description of the behavior of the interlocutors and the conditions of dialogical communication.
- In the proposed dialogue, restore the first character's cues by reading the description of the situation in which the communication takes place.
The second type of oral speech is a monologue that is uttered by one person, addressing another or many people listening to him: this is a teacher's story, a detailed response from a student, a report, etc. Monologue speech has a greater compositional complexity, requires completeness of thought, stricter adherence to grammatical rules, strict logic and consistency in the presentation of what the speaker wants to say. This type of speech presents great difficulties in comparison with dialogic speech, its expanded forms in ontogenesis develop later, its formation in students, especially in English lessons, is a special task that teachers have to solve throughout all the years of training .For the development of monological speech, such exercises are offered as:
- Description of images. In these exercises, the basis is the material that contains certain content and is perceived visually and that can be described or interpreted. To make this exercise more vivid, you can use the following types of images: description of elementary images; description of plot plots; description of statistical plots; speech accompaniment (for example, a filmstrip); description of real objects and their location. When we present visual material to students, we inform them or suggest the content of their future statements, but we do this by non-linguistic means.
- Situational exercises. As a means of developing monological speech, the following types of educational and speech situations (ESS) are of interest: augmented, problematic, and imaginary. The essence of the augmented ESS is that students are invited to supplement, complete the description of the situation, and make a conclusion from the presented part of it. For example, a problem conditional speech situation is an exercise whose exposition contains some non-speech task. Analyzing the problem, students describe in detail the ways of its speculative solution. Imaginary ESS set more difficult tasks for students, since they describe the situation very sparingly and appeal mainly to fantasy. Based on this, students reconstruct the details of the situation, link them to an imaginary place and time, as well as to possible persons.
- Discussion exercises. These include educational discussion and commentary. The exposition in the discussion, which puts forward a problem for polemics and encourages the interlocutors to exchange views, allows you to organize a multi-sided dialogue in which the student's speech party can be quite long.
- Commenting. A less polemical and at the same time longer monologue. Having received some information, the speaker expresses his attitude to it, as well as the resulting considerations of a comparative, generalizing, evaluating or associative nature, his emotions. The object of commenting can be material of various genres and characters. In the case of younger students, these are drawings, applications, clippings from children's magazines and newspapers, as well as cartoons.
- Compositional exercises. Depending on the degree of the student's reliance on his own creativity, personal life experience and knowledge, several types of oral composition can be distinguished. This is a story based on a proposed situation or plot, on a proverb or catch phrase, on a topic or task, and finally, on the student's own topic .
The technological block is a training methods for the implementation of the goal, as well as exercises for the development of foreign language dialogic and monological speech activities.
The training method is one of the main components of the learning process. If you do not use different methods, you will not be able to realize the goals and objectives of the training. That is why so much attention is paid to finding out both their essence and functions.
In the course of the work, the following training methods were used:
- communication approach;
- game method;
- project method;
Within the framework of the communicative approach, teaching a foreign language is aimed at developing the ability to speak spontaneously on various topics. The principles of building the content of the technology of communicative learning are:
- Speech orientation, teaching foreign languages through communication. Only lessons in the language are valid, not about the language.
- Functionality. The relationship of lexical, grammatical and phonetic aspects of speech activity. Both words and grammatical forms are assimilated immediately in the activity: the student performs a speech taskconfirms the thought, doubts what he has heard, asks about something, encourages the interlocutor to act and in the process learns the necessary words or grammatical forms.
- Situational awareness. Role-based organization of the educational process takes place with the maximum motivation of educational situations. It is crucial to select and organize the material based on situations and communication problems that interest students of every age. To learn a language, you need to learn the world around you with it. The desire to speak appears in students only in a real or recreated situation that affects the speakers.
- Novelty, which manifests itself in various components of the lesson: speech situations, the material used, the organization of the lesson and the variety of work methods.
- Personal orientation of communication, which consists in the initial difference between people in the ability to carry out educational and speech activities, in the presence of a certain experience, the context of activity, a set of certain feelings and emotions. Taking into account all these personal characteristics allows you to create conditions for communication: positive emotional saturation, communicative motivation, purposefulness of speaking, and etc.
- Collective interaction – a way of organizing the process in which students actively communicate with each other, and the success of each is the success of the others; self-realization of the individual in the group.
- Modeling, which consists in selecting a certain amount of knowledge necessary to represent the country's culture and language system in a concentrated, model form. The content side of the language in this case is problems, not topics .
In primary school, a special place is occupied by gaming technologies. The main task is to make the learning process entertaining, to create a cheerful working mood for students, to facilitate overcoming difficulties in mastering the educational material. Games are of great help in solving these issues. Their use gives good results, increases the interest of students in the lesson, allows them to focus their attention on the main thing – mastering speech skills in the process of a natural situation, communication during a game. Functions of the game activity in the learning process training (development of memory, attention, perception of information, development of general academic skills, development of foreign language skills):
- relaxation (removal of emotional stress caused by stress on the nervous system during intensive foreign language training);
- developing (harmonious development of personal qualities to activate the reserve capabilities of the individual);
- psychological (the formation of skills to prepare your physiological state for more effective activity, as well as the restructuring of the psyche for the assimilation of large amounts of information);
- communicative (creating an atmosphere of foreign language communication, uniting a team of students, establishing new emotional and communicative relationships based on interaction in a foreign language);
- entertainment (creating a favorable atmosphere, comfort);
- educational (education of such quality as attentive, humane attitude to the partner in the game; also develops a sense of mutual help and mutual support) ;
The project method is a joint educational activity of a teacher and students, aimed at solving a specific practical problem and obtaining a product. This type of method contributes to the formation of communicative competence at the elementary level when teaching a foreign language at the initial stage. Using the project method in the classroom helps to teach students to understand the speech in a foreign language, to inform the interlocutor about themselves, to encourage the interlocutor to speech behavior, to ask questions and answer them, to express agreement or disagreement, desire or unwillingness, approval or disapproval.
When constructing the model, we relied on the ideas of personality-oriented, activity-based, polysubject (dialogic) and competence-based approaches.
Using a personality-oriented approach, first of all, the teacher's attention is focused on the student's personality. In addition to focusing on the development of intelligence, the teacher should cover the development of his civic feelings, spiritual life, creative inclinations and various skills. When organizing the educational process on the basis of this approach, a bias is made on the development of the ability to make independent choices, search for their purpose, the ability to draw conclusions, sensibly assess their own victories and defeats, the quality of responsibility and creativity.
The activity approach involves the process of the student's activity, which is aimed at the formation of his consciousness and personality. In the course of learning through the activity approach, the student acts as an active creative principle. Through interaction with the world, the student learns to build himself. It is in the process of this approach that the student becomes himself, self-education and self-actualization of his personality takes place.
The American scientist D. Dewey defined the basic principles of the activity approach:
- consideration of student preferences;
- training in critical thinking and action;
- using tools such as knowledge and cognition to overcome difficulties;
- free creative work and collaboration ;
Based on the polysubjective (dialogic) approach, a person is the product and result of communication with other people. It finds its "human" content in communication with others. The task of the teacher is to monitor relationships, promote human relationships and establish a psychological climate in the team. In this approach, the student's personality is considered as a system of relations characteristic of it, as a carrier of relationships and interactions of a social group. As a result, the polysubject approach in combination with the personal and activity approaches creates a psychological and pedagogical unity of subjects, thanks to which the "object" influence gives way to the creative process of mutual development and self-development.
The competence approach, according to O. E. Lebedev, consists of general principles for determining the goals of education, selecting the content of education, organizing the educational process and evaluating educational results. The principles are as follows:
- The meaning of this approach is based on the development of students' ability to independently solve problems in various fields and activities based on the use of social experience, an element of which is the students' own experience;
- The meaning of the organization of the educational process is to create conditions for the formation of students' experience of independent solution of cognitive, communicative, organizational, moral and other problems that make up the content of education;
- The content of education is a didactically adapted social experience of solving cognitive, ideological, moral, political and other problems .
As for the principles of oral speech development, in this work we were based on such principles as:
- The principle of communication orientation. Training is implemented in situations that are natural for communication or as close to them as possible. Following this principle implies such a focus of classes, in which the goal of learning (mastering the language as a means) and the means of achieving the goal (speech activity) act in close interaction. The implementation of the principle of communication consists in likening the learning process to the process of real communication. This involves solving real communication problems in the classroom in order to include students in communication in the language being studied. Communication is not only a goal, but also a means to achieve the goal of learning. Following the principle of communication also involves the organization of active creative activity of students: constant reference to language as a medium of communication, extensive use of collective forms of work, attention to specific situations that reflect the interests of students and creative types of tasks, presentation of educational material on the basis of speech intentions, parallel improvement of the grammatical form and its function in speech.
- The principle of clarity is to refer to real images when teaching younger students. Specific objects and visual images that enrich the child's experience contribute to the correct development of his mental activity. For example, illustrations, diagrams, layouts, etc.
- The principle of activity and consciousness. If there is a weak manifestation of oneself in the educational process or disinterest in what the student is doing, then the knowledge will not be obtained. It is necessary to constantly motivate and engage children in learning, giving them as many tasks as possible to perform independently.
- It is also necessary to adhere to the principle of systematicity, giving younger students knowledge consistently: from easy to difficult, from the known to the unknown.
The next block of the model is the evaluation block, which reflects the level of formation of foreign language oral skills of primary school students. The result of the successful development of all types of speech activity will help elementary school students easily overcome all difficulties in the future, as they will be able to understand foreign language speech, ask questions and answer them, express their own opinions, give constructive criticism, evaluate their achievements and defeats, establish a logical chain of actions, etc.
Thus, it is worth noting that this developed theoretical model of the shaping foreign language oral speech among primary school students on the basis of the updated content of education is presented in the form of a holistic, dynamic system that reflects the goal, objectives, content, components, result and is open to constant updating. This model makes it possible to adequately assess, manage the development of the process and predict its subsequent use .
The developed model is based on materials from the document "On the approval of the state mandatory standards of education at all levels of education" and the Bloom’s Taxonomy.
According to the document, there is a real state mandatory standard of preschool education and training, developed in accordance with the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated July 27, 2007 "On Education", which helps to determine the requirements for the level of training of preschool children, the content of preschool education and training, the maximum amount of educational load. Thanks to this standard, teachers have a clear goal and certain tasks that must be achieved for the successful development of language skills.
Based on this document, Chapter 2. "Requirements for the content of education with a focus on learning outcomes" Paragraph 1. "Requirements for the updated content of primary education with a focus on learning outcomes", the goal of the modern model of education was defined, which is to create an educational space favorable for the harmonious formation and development of the student's personality, who has the basics of the following skills of a wide range:
- functional and creative application of knowledge;
- critical thinking;
- conducting research work;
- use of information and communication technologies;
- use of various communication methods, including language skills;
- the ability to work in a group and individually.
Moreover, the requirements for a foreign language were outlined in Chapter 4 "Requirements for the level of training of students." Paragraph 1. "Requirements for the level of training of students in the updated content of primary education":
- listening: a primary school student should understand the main content of a short conversation on a familiar topic, recognize the sound of familiar words and phrases; understand short questions about color and numbers; use contextual hints to predict the content and meaning of a short conversation on a familiar topic; understand the general meaning of short stories that sound slow and clear;
- speaking: the student must formulate basic statements and statements about himself, formulate questions; answer questions; pronounce the main words and phrases with the correct intonation and emphasis when describing objects and events; express what he likes and dislikes;
- reading: the student uses an illustrated dictionary; reads and understands small fiction and non-fiction texts on social and everyday topics; determines the main meaning of small texts; determines specific information and details in small texts;
- Writing: the student correctly writes frequently used words, demonstrating knowledge of the differences between their spelling and pronunciation; writes short sentences under dictation; correctly puts punctuation marks at the end of sentences.
In addition, the modern model of education in Kazakhstan was developed on the basis of the Bloom taxonomy, since the purpose of this system is to develop children's thinking skills. In our modern society, we need people who can not only accumulate information, but also use it. Thinking allows people to use the accumulated information and solve their problems.
The Bloom's taxonomy is a system of educational goals that was developed by scientists at the University of Chicago, led by psychologist Benjamin Bloom. He believed that the lesson should include 6 stages, both the simplest actions of students in the lesson, and complex learning actions, for example: remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating and creating.
The first stage is knowledge of the material, information, residual knowledge on this topic, facts. For example, for the level of memorization, tasks that begin with the verbs remember, repeat, list, name, write, simulate, etc. are suitable.
The second stage is the understanding of the material, its explanation, the transformation of the material from one form of expression to another. Understanding is achieved through explanation, description, definition, discussion, formulation.
The third stage is application. This stage means the ability to use the studied material in specific conditions and in new situations. Tasks aimed at applying knowledge are formulated using the verbs solve, plan, etc.
The fourth stage is analysis. The characteristic features of this stage are the principles of construction, the ability to break the material into its component parts, the ability to use new material in a new situation. Analytical skills are formed by tasks with the key verbs explore, compare, etc.
The fifth stage is synthesis. This stage is aimed at obtaining a new product, for example, an oral message, a report, an action plan. The student's activity is of a creative nature. And the last stage is evaluation which is a judgment of the available data .
Results and Discussion
The experimental work as a component of the study was carried out during one academic year on the basis of MSI "School-lyceum № 66", Karaganda town. The purpose of our experimental work was to test the efficiency of the developed model of teaching foreign language oral speech among primary school students based on the updated content of education. The model was implemented in the course of teaching the discipline "English". Students of the 4th grade took part in the experiment. The number of students in the experimental group was 13. Also, as a comparison with the group where training was conducted on the basis of the updated content of education, the second group consisting of 12 students was taken, where the traditional model of education was used. The training was conducted in English.
To summarize the results, students of the 4th grade were presented with a questionnaire that will help them learn the results of teaching foreign language oral speech. This questionnaire consisted of 4 questions.
- Is it difficult for you to understand foreign language by ear after the lessons you have completed?
a) Yes b) No
- Do you have difficulty answering questions in English after completing classes?
a) Yes b) No
- Do you find it difficult to ask questions in English after your classes?
a) Yes b) No
- Is it difficult for you to express your opinion in English after the lessons you have completed?
a) Yes b) No
According to the first question “Is it difficult for you to understand foreign language by ear?”, the students of the first group "Modern model of education" answer the question (Diagram № 1), chose mainly the answer "No", and the other three students chose the answer "Yes". At this time, 10 students of the second group "Traditional Model of Education" chose the answer "Yes" and two of the 12 students chose the answer "No".
The following questions relate to the level of proficiency in "speaking" and "listening". To the second question, "Do you have difficulty answering questions in English?"(Diagram № 1), in the "Modern Model of Education" group, 12 students answered "No"and only one student answered "Yes". As for the second group "Traditional model of education", 8 students answered "Yes" and 4 students preferred to answer "No".
Moving on to the following questions, to the third and fourth questions "Do you find it difficult to ask questions in English?" and "Is it difficult for you to express your opinion in English?"(Diagram № 1), all students of the first group answered "No", 9 students of the second group answered "Yes"and three of them answered "No".
According to the next question (Diagram №1) which is “Is it difficult for you to ask English questions?” the first group where modern model of education was used, 13 school students chose answer “No”, meanwhile just only three school students from the group where used traditional model of education answered “No”. Also, 9 students from the second group preferred to choose the answer “Yes”.
Summing up the results of the experimental part, it is worth noting that thanks to the active training, which was conducted in the conditions of the created collaborative environment, all 13 school students of the experimental group marked oral speech development exercises as effective in the framework of updated content of education. The reason for this is that in the process of developing foreign-language oral speech, training was conducted in a collaborative environment that promotes a good mood in the classroom, differentiation of training was carried out, intersubject connections were implemented. Moreover, modern technologies, interactive teaching, research methods and timely response to the needs of students were used.
We have achieved such goals as teaching students of the junior class 4 “A”:
- Ask questions in English;
- Answer questions in English;
- Express your personal opinion on a particular situation;
- Understand foreign language speech by ear;
- Find solutions to the problem they face;
- Identify, review and evaluate the values of society and personal values;
- Evaluate your own abilities;
- Work independently, as well as in a team;
As a result, our scientific papertation research focused on the growth of foreign language oral speech in primary school students within the context of updated educational material. The following conclusions can be drawn from the study's findings:
- We were able to evaluate the nature of the idea of "updated content of education" by analyzing scientific articles written by Kazakhstani scientists in the field of education. The modern educational model entails the transformation of secondary education's structure, material, teaching and upbringing approaches and methods, as well as the implementation of a radically new framework for assessing student outcomes. The aim is to establish an educational environment that promotes the individual's harmonious formation and growth.
- The uniqueness of teaching foreign language oral speech to primary school students based on the updated educational content is to develop critical thinking, so that in the future children will be able to clearly express their thoughts, use a foreign language in a real situation (i.e., respond adequately in any communicative situations), independently solve problems, etc. Since children are the future of our country, we must do all possibleto support their development, so that in the future they can lead our country into the international arena.
- We have developed a theoretical model for the development of foreign language oral speech among primary school students based on the updated content of education. It is presented as a complete, dynamic system that reflects the goal, objectives, content, components, and result and is open to constant updating.
This model makes it possible to adequately assess, manage the development of the process and predict its subsequent use .
- As an experimental work on the development of foreign language skills and abilities of younger schoolchildren, we tested the model of teaching foreign language oral speech among students of the 4th grade on the basis of the updated content of education. The results of this experimental work turned out to be positive, since according to the survey, the majority of students in the group where classes were conducted within the framework of the modern model of education using effective exercises were able to achieve all the tasks set by the state mandatory standard of education, namely:
- The student must formulate basic statements and statements about himself, formulate questions; answer questions; pronounce the main words and phrases with the correct intonation and emphasis when describing objects and events; express what he likes and dislikes;
- The primary school student should understand the main content of a short conversation on a familiar topic, recognize the sound of familiar words and phrases; understand short questions about color and numbers; use contextual hints to predict the content and meaning of a short conversation on a familiar topic; understand the general meaning of short stories that sound slow and clear;
Summarizing all above mentioned we conclude that we achieved the goal which is theoretical justification and practical creation of a model for teaching foreign language oral speech to primary school students in the context of updated educational content.
By achieving goal, primary school students will be able to develop the skills of searching, analyzing and interpreting information. In addition, primary school students will develop such functional learning skills as speaking, listening, and logically expressing their thoughts in three languages. The goal of the updated content of education is to prepare students for adult life, where they will be forced to make decisions independently. Younger generation is the future of our state that depends on how young people manifest themselves. Our country needs educated, well-mannered and competent young people who will raise Kazakhstan in the international arena.
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