Linguacultural aspects of simile in kazakh and english languages

A simile is a figure of speech that directly compares two different things, usually by employing the words "like", "as". Even though both similes and metaphors are forms of comparison, similes indirectly compare the two ideas and allow them to remain distinct in spite of their similarities, whereas metaphors compare two things directly. ." Example: 1."The water is like the sun." "The water is like the sun" is an example of simile because water and the sun have little in common, and yet they're being compared to one another. The "is" is also part of what makes this stanza an example of simile. "The rain falls like the sun, rising upon the mountains. "Here is another example, comparing falling rain to the rising of the sun. Good similes compare two very different nouns. Similes are comparisons that show how two things that are not alike in most ways are similar in one important way. Similes are a way to describe something. Authors use them to make their writing more interesting or entertaining.[1. p494]

Similes use the words “as” or “like” to make the connection between the two things that are being compared. Examples:

    1. Playing chess with Ashley is like trying to outsmart a computer.

The activity “playing chess with Ashley” is being compared to “trying to outsmart a computer.” The point is that Ashley can think in a powerful manner that resembles the way a computer operates, not that she is like a computer in any other way. "The rain falls like the sun, rising upon the mountains."

    1. His temper was as explosive as a volcano. His temper is being compared to a volcano in that it can be sudden and violent.
    2. Mary frowned and said, “I believe that taking drugs is like playing with fire”. Here ‘playing with fire’ is an example of simile because a simple or little thing can make dangerous, will be harmful. And the equivalent of this simile in Kazakh form is ‘oйыннан от шығады’, мысалы: Ойланбай сөйлесен ойыннан от шығады.

4.I really like Pitty. Her heart is as soft as a feather pillow. Here ‘as soft as a feather pillow’ is an example of simile because Patty is very gentle person. The equivalent of this simile in Kazakh form is «қой аузынан шөп алмас», мысалы:

«Қойдай момын, надан; Кең, тыныш, тұнық даланы, қойдай момын, надан ауылын көксеген бас мынау еңбек дүрсілімен, еңбек жарқылдарынан зырқ-зырқ етеді». [2. p139-147] Simile have been widely used in literature for their expressiveness as a figure of speech. For example: Curley flopping like a fish on a line. Here “flopping like a fish” is a simile of this sentence, the meaning of this simile is that Curley sounded very little, like click. [3.]

More detail is present in the following similes, but it is still a matter of inference as to what features are actually predicated of a target. [4.] Examples:

  1. He fights like a lion. – In this sentence we compare his energy, how he so powerful and strong like lion. Kazakh equivalent of this simile is «арыстандай айбатты, жолбарыстай қайратты. Қауменнің екі ұлы арыстандай үлкен, қабыландай қайратты болатын».
  2. She swims like a dolphin. In this sen-tence we compare how she gifted or talented of swimming. Kazakh equivalent of this simile is «Балықтай сүңгиді. Өзі суға балықтай жүзетін».
  3. He drinks like a fish. – In this sentence we compare his to a fish and the meaning of this simile is he drinks a lot. Kazakh equivalent of this simile is «құсша аз жеу, құстай шоқу. Алдына келген тағамдардың әрқайсысынан құстай шоқып, әр ішімдіктен бір-бір ұрттап шегіне қоятын.» She eats like a bird. The meaning of this simile is that she eats very little.
  4. Tom eats like a horse. The meaning of this simile is that he eats a lot. The Kazakh version of this simile is «егінге түскен сиырдай жайпау. Егінге түскен сиырдай жайпап жатқан өңшең аусал сиырдай ораза тұтқындар». Here English men compare a person to a horse but Kazakh men compare to a cow.
  5. He eats like a pig. The meaning of this simile is that he eats a lot and impolitely. The Kazakh version of this simile is «қара қабандай шайнандау».
  6. They fight like cats and dogs. The meaning of this simile is they fight fiercely and Kazakh equivalent of this simile is «ит көрген мысықша тіксіну. Ит көрген мысықша тіксіне қарап тұрған ».
  7. Selena sings like an angel. The meaning of this simile is that Selena sings beautiful. The Kazakh equivalent of this simile is «әндей күйлеп, созып айту. Абай деп атымды атағанның өзінде әндей күйлеп, созып айттың ғой».
  8. My little brother sleeps like a log. Here “sleeps like a log” is a simile of this sentence, the meaning of this simile is that he sleeps well and soundly. The Kazakh equivalent of this simile is «сәбидей пәк, тәтті. Ұйқының құшағында жатқан сұлу қыздың сәбидей пәк жүзінен өзгеше бір рақат нұры шашырап тұрған тәрізденеді».
  9. She works like a dog. The meaning of this simile is that she works very hard and here “works like a dog” is a simile. The Kazakh equivalent of this simile is «Есектен де жуас боп, қолынан түсті таяғы».
  10. She danced as gracefully as a swan. She danced very well. In Kazakh version of this simile is «Аққудай сылану. Айдынның ерке сұлу аққуындай. Айдынның ерке сұлу аққуындай аспанда жүзді жайлап нұрлы алтынай».
  11. She walks as gracefully and elegantly as a cat. The Kazakh version of this simile is «Ақ маралдай керілу. Ақ орданың ішінде ақ маралдай керілген аяулы Сұлтанай».

A simile is a figure of speech that says that one thing is like another different thing. We can use similes to make descriptions more emphatic and vivid. We often use the words as……..as and like with simile. Here we show the structure of the simile with example sentence how they are done.

The 1st part an done by something is as adjective as something

His skin was as cold as ice. Here the meaning is that so cold, very cold, the Kazakh version is: «жансыз мұздай мөлдіреу, Қол – аяғы мұздай боп қатып қалыпты». [5, 148б].

She looked as gentle as a lamb. Here “as gentle as a lamb” is a simile of this sentence, the meaning is that she was very kind and gentle. The Kazakh version is: «қой аузынан шөп алмас».

The 2nd part an done by something is like something

My love is like a red, red rose. Here “like a rose” is a simile, the meaning is that his or her love is beautiful. The Kazakh version is: «Махаббат гүлі – раушан гүл».

These cookies taste like garbage. Here “taste like garbage” is a simile and the meaning is “disgusting”. The Kazakh version is: «татымы жоқ».

He had a temper (that was) like a volcano. Here “ like a volcano” is a simile and the meaning is “explosive”. The Kazakh version is: «Мұздай болып қату. Бұл мінез өсіп, күшейіп, ішіне мұздай болып қатқан сайын, Қасым ашулы болып, қаны бұзыла бастады».

The 3rd part an done by something does like something

He eats like a pig. Here “eats like a pig” is simile and the meaning is “to eat impolitely”. The Kazakh version is: «шошқадай шайнандау».

He smokes like a chimney. Here “like a chimney” is simile and the meaning is that he smokes heavily, all the time.

They fought like cats and dogs. Here “fight like cats and dogs” is simile and the meaning is that “to fight fiercely”. The Kazakh version is: «оттай өштесу».

Note that with the as...as pattern, the first as is sometimes suppressed, for example:

His skin was cold as ice. Here “cold as ice” is simile and the meaning is that his very cold.

The above patterns of simile are the most common, but there are others made with adverbs or words such as than and as if, for example:

He ran as fast as the wind. Here “as fast as the wind” is simile and the meaning is that he goes very quickly. The Kazakh version is: «Жүрісі құйындай. Ат жүрісін сұрасаң, жүрісі оның құйындай».

List of simile

The meaning

as blind as a bat

completely blind

as wise as an owl

very wise

to work like a dog

to work very hard

as cold as ice

very cold

as flat as a pancake

completely flat

as gentle as a lamb

very gentle

as light as a feather

very light

as old as the hills

very old

as sharp as a knife

very sharp

as strong as a bull

very strong

as white as snow

pure white

like a rose

beautiful

like a volcano

explosive

like garbage

disgusting

like an animal

inhuman

like spaghetti

entangled

like dewdrops

sweet and pure

like gold dust

precious

like a tip

very untidy (tip = garbage dump)

like a dream

wonderful, incredible

like stars

bright and beautiful

to drink like a fish

to drink a lot

to eat like a bird

to eat very little

to eat like a horse

to eat a lot

to eat like a pig

to eat impolitely

to fight like cats and dogs

to fight fiercely

to sing like an angel

to sing beautifully

to sleep like a log

to sleep well and soundly

to smoke like a chimney

to smoke heavily, all the time

to soar like an eagle

to fly high and free

Similes often make use of irony or sarcasm. In such cases they may even mean the opposite of the adjective used. Look at these examples:

His explanation was as clear as mud. (not clear at all since mud is opaque)

The film was about as interesting as wat ching a copy of Windows download. (long and boring)

Watching the show was like watching paint dry.

(very boring)

Similes are often found (and they sometimes originate) in poetry and other literature. Here are a few examples:

A woman without a man is like a fish without a bicycle Irina Dunn

Dawn breaks open like a wound that bleeds afresh Wilfred Owen

Death has many times invited me: it was like the salt invisible in the waves Pablo Neruda

Guiltless forever, like a tree Robert Browning Happy as pigs in mud David Eddings

How like the winter hath my absence been William Shakespeare

As idle as a painted ship upon a painted ocean Samuel Taylor Coleridge

Jubilant as a flag unfurled Dorothy Parker

So are you to my thoughts as food to life William Shakespeare

Yellow butterflies flickered along the shade like flecks of sun William Faulkner

 

List of the used literature:

  1. Encyclopedia International, Oxford university press,1981, p494
  2. A Course in modern English lexicology. R.Z.Ginzburg and A.A.Sankin. high school, 1979. p139-147
  3. http:// www. Tnellen.com/cybereng /lit_terms/ metaphor
  4. http: grammar.about.com/od/mo/g/metaphorterm.htm.
  5. Аманжолов Қ. Дариға, сол қыз. Алматы: Атамұра, 2003.–212бет
Magazine: KazNU BULLETIN
Year: 2012
City: Almaty
Category: Philology
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